Hurricanes are among nature's most powerful and destructive phenomena. On average, 12 tropical storms, 6 of which become hurricanes form over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico during the hurricane season which runs from June 1 to November 30 each year. In the Central Pacific Ocean, an average of 3 tropical storms, 2 of which become hurricanes form or move over the area during the hurricane season, which runs from June 1 to November 30 each year. Over a typical 2-year period, the U.S. coastline is struck by an average of 3 hurricanes, 1 of which is classified as a major hurricane (winds of 111 mph or greater). By knowing what actions to take before, during, and after a hurricane, you can increase your chance of survival.This website provides information on how to learn about your specific hurricane vulnerabilities. By knowing what actions to take before the hurricane season begins, when a hurricane approaches, what action to take when the storm is in your area, and what to do after a hurricane leaves your area you can increase your chance of survival.
While hurricanes pose the greatest threat to life and property, tropical storms and depression also can be devastating. The primary hazards from tropical cyclones are storm surge flooding, inland flooding from heavy rains, destructive winds, tornadoes, and high surf and rip currents.
- Storm surge is the abnormal rise of water generated by a storm's winds. This hazard is historically the leading cause of hurricane related deaths in the United States. Storm surge and large battering waves can result in large loss of life and cause massive destruction along the coast.
- Storm surge can travel several miles inland, especially along bays, rivers, and estuaries.
- Flooding from heavy rains is the second leading cause of fatalities during landfalling tropical cyclones. Widespread torrential rains from tropical storms and hurricanes often cause flooding hundreds of miles inland. This flooding can persist for several days after a storm.
- Winds from a hurricane can destroy buildings and mobile homes. Debris, such as signs, roofing material, and items left outside can become flying missiles during hurricanes.
- Tornadoes are often produced by landfalling tropical storms and hurricanes. These tornadoes typically occur in rain bands well away from the center of the hurricane.
- Dangerous waves produced by a hurricane's strong winds can pose a significant hazard to coastal residents and mariners. These waves can cause deadly rip currents, significant beach erosion, and damage to structures along the coastline, even when the storm is more than a 1,000 miles offshore.