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CLMMQT

CLIMATE REPORT...FINAL
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MARQUETTE MI
1150 PM EDT FRI MAR 27 2015

...................................

...THE MARQUETTE MI CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR THE MONTH OF FEBRUARY 2015...

CLIMATE NORMAL PERIOD 1981 TO 2010
CLIMATE RECORD PERIOD 1961 TO 2015

WEATHER         OBSERVED          NORMAL  DEPART  LAST YEAR`S
                 VALUE   DATE(S)  VALUE   FROM    VALUE  DATE(S)
                                          NORMAL
................................................................
TEMPERATURE (F)
RECORD
 HIGH              61   02/17/1981
 LOW              -34   02/17/1979
HIGHEST            24   02/28        24       0       41  02/20
                        02/10                             02/19
LOWEST            -28   02/23         5     -33      -28  02/28
AVG. MAXIMUM     11.8              25.6   -13.8     16.3
AVG. MINIMUM     -6.9               5.3   -12.2     -5.1
MEAN              2.4              15.5   -13.1      5.6
DAYS MAX >= 90      0               0.0     0.0        0
DAYS MAX <= 32     28              20.6     7.4       26
DAYS MIN <= 32     28              27.6     0.4       28
DAYS MIN <= 0      22              10.2    11.8       20

PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
RECORD
 MAXIMUM         5.35   2002
 MINIMUM         0.48   1994
TOTALS           1.67              2.14   -0.47     1.34
DAILY AVG.       0.06              0.08   -0.02     0.05
DAYS >= .01        16              13.1     2.9       13
DAYS >= .10         7               5.5     1.5        6
DAYS >= .50         0               1.0    -1.0        0
DAYS >= 1.00        0               0.2    -0.2        0
GREATEST
 24 HR. TOTAL    0.40   02/14 TO 02/14

SNOWFALL (INCHES)
RECORDS
 TOTAL           91.9   2002
TOTALS           40.7              35.9     4.8     20.9
SINCE 7/1       154.0             152.4     1.6    129.5
SNOWDEPTH AVG.     31                24       7       31
DAYS >= 1.0        12               8.0     4.0        7
GREATEST
 SNOW DEPTH        37   02/09                         35  02/22
                                                          02/21
 24 HR TOTAL      9.6   02/08 TO 02/09

DEGREE_DAYS
HEATING TOTAL    1747              1387     360     1655
 SINCE 7/1       7311              6624     687     7322
COOLING TOTAL       0                 0       0        0
 SINCE 1/1          0                 0       0        0
.................................................................

WIND (MPH)
AVERAGE WIND SPEED              MM
HIGHEST WIND SPEED/DIRECTION    MM        DATE   MM
HIGHEST GUST SPEED/DIRECTION    40/360    DATE  02/14

SKY COVER
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (PERCENT)   MM
AVERAGE SKY COVER             MM
NUMBER OF DAYS FAIR          MM
NUMBER OF DAYS PC            MM
NUMBER OF DAYS CLOUDY        MM

AVERAGE RH (PERCENT)     MM

WEATHER CONDITIONS. NUMBER OF DAYS WITH
THUNDERSTORM              0     MIXED PRECIP               1
HEAVY RAIN                0     RAIN                       0
LIGHT RAIN                0     FREEZING RAIN              0
LT FREEZING RAIN          3     HAIL                       0
HEAVY SNOW                0     SNOW                       1
LIGHT SNOW               24     SLEET                      1
FOG                       0     FOG W/VIS <= 1/4 MILE      0
HAZE                      0

-  INDICATES NEGATIVE NUMBERS.
R  INDICATES RECORD WAS SET OR TIED.
MM INDICATES DATA IS MISSING.
T  INDICATES TRACE AMOUNT.

&&

...FEBRUARY 2015 MONTHLY CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR UPPER MICHIGAN...
/THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE CHIPPEWA AND MACKINAC COUNTIES/

...EXTREMELY COLD MAINLY BECAUSE OF SECOND HALF CHILL...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT NEWBERRY AND MANISTIQUE...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT THE MARQUETTE NWS...
...SECOND COLDEST FEBRUARY AT IRONWOOD AND IRON MOUNTAIN...
...THIRD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT HOUGHTON AND MUNISING...
...SIXTH COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MARQUETTE CITY...

...PRECIPITATION AND SNOWFALL NEAR TO ABOVE NORMAL NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR BUT BELOW NORMAL OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL...

FEBRUARY CLIMATE STATISTICS FOR THE MARQUETTE NWS IN NEGAUNEE
 TOWNSHIP

                                    NORMAL   DEPARTURE
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE          2.4     15.5  MINUS  -13.1
AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE    11.8     25.6  MINUS  -13.8
AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE     -6.9      5.3  MINUS  -12.2
HEATING DEGREE DAYS         1747     1387   PLUS    360
COOLING DEGREE DAYS            0        0             0
TOTAL PRECIPITATION         1.67     2.14  MINUS   0.47
TOTAL SNOWFALL              40.7     35.9   PLUS    4.8

HIGHEST TEMPERATURE:                    24 ON 2/10 AND 2/28
LOWEST TEMPERATURE:                    -28 ON 2/23
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY PRECIPITATION:  0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST 24 HOUR PRECIPITATION:       0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY SNOWFALL:        9.2 ON 2/8
GREATEST 24 HOUR SNOWFALL:             9.6 ON 2/8-2/9
PEAK WIND SPEED:     40 MPH FROM THE NORTH ON 2/14

DAILY RECORD SNOWFALL ON 2/8...9.2 /OLD RECORD 7.6..1992/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/14...6 /8...1963/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/15...5 /7...1991/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-25 /-21...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-4 /ZERO...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/20...-26 /-15...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/23...-28 /-15...1965/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/26...7 /8...1964&2014/
RECORD LOWEST FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE...2.4 /OLD RECORD 5.6...2014/
RECORD NUMBER OF FEBRUARY DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO MINIMUM
 TEMPERATURE...21 DAYS /OLD RECORD 19 DAYS...1979/
---------------------------------------------------------------------
GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS (FEET/METERS ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL)

                            LAKE SUPERIOR  LAKE MICHIGAN-HURON
02/01/15 DAILY MEAN         602.02/183.49     579.12/176.52
02/28/15 DAILY MEAN         601.81/183.43     579.04/176.49
AVG JAN 2015 DAILY MEAN     602.16/183.54     579.11/176.51
AVG FEB 2014 DAILY MEAN     601.19/183.24     577.27/175.95
LONG TERM FEB DAILY MEAN    601.25/183.26     578.35/176.28
MAXIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      602.46/183.63     581.07/177.11
                                (1986)           (1986)
MINIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      599.61/182.76     576.08/175.59
                                (1926)           (1964)

...GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS WELL ABOVE NORMAL AGAIN IN FEBRUARY...

ALTHOUGH GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS FELL SLOWLY IN FEBRUARY 2015 AS IS
NORMAL...THESE LEVELS REMAINED WELL ABOVE THE LONG-TERM AVERAGE. AT
THE END OF FEBRUARY...THE LEVEL OF LAKES MICHIGAN AND HURON WAS 8 TO
9 INCHES HIGHER THAN NORMAL AND OVER 21 INCHES HIGHER THAN ON 2/28
IN 2014. AS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR...THE 2/28 LEVEL OF THAT BODY OF WATER
WAS ALMOST 7 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL AND OVER 7 INCHES HIGHER THAN
OBSERVED ON 2/28 IN 2014.

DUE TO THE INTENSE CHILL THAT PREVAILED DURING FEBRUARY...LAKE
SUPERIOR BECAME ALMOST 100 PERCENT ICE COVERED DURING THE LAST TWO
WEEKS OF FEBRUARY. THE NORTHERN BAY OF GREEN BAY WAS ALSO COMPLETELY
ICE COVERED. MUCH OF NORTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN WAS COVERED BY ICE AS
WELL EXCEPT FOR A NARROW CORRIDOR TO THE EAST OF THE DOOR AND GARDEN
PENINSULAS.

OBTAIN GREAT LAKES WATER LEVEL DATA AS REPORTED BY THE U.S. ARMY
CORPS OF ENGINEERS AT

HTTP://WWW.LRE.USACE.ARMY.MIL/MISSIONS/GREATLAKESINFORMATION/
       GREATLAKESWATERLEVELS/CURRENTCONDITIONS.ASPX (ALL LOWER CASE).
---------------------------------------------------------------------
                       FEBRUARY CLIMATE HIGHLIGHTS

HIGHEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...32 AT MENOMINEE ON 2/24

LOWEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...-40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY
                               ON 2/19

HIGHEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...8.6 DEGREES AT COPPER HARBOR

LOWEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...-2.4 DEGREES AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY

HIGHEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...2.64 INCHES AT MUNISING

LOWEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...0.22 INCH AT MENOMINEE

HIGHEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...50.7 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY

LOWEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...3.5 INCHES AT MENOMINEE AND IRON MOUNTAIN

GREATEST SNOW DEPTH...48 INCHES NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY
                       ON 2/25 AND 2/26

LOWEST SNOW DEPTH...TRACE AT MENOMINEE ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/10

A PERSISTENT DEEP UPPER TROUGH OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH
AMERICA DOWNSTREAM OF A STRONG UPPER RIDGE ALONG THE WEST COAST WAS
THE DOMINANT WEATHER PATTERN DURING FEBRUARY 2015. THE NORTHWEST
FLOW BETWEEN THESE TWO FEATURES DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF ARCTIC
AIR INTO THE GREAT LAKES...RESULTING IN A TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY
AT MOST PLACES AND A RECORD LOW FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE AT SOME
LOCATIONS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN. AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURES
RANGING BETWEEN ABOUT -2 AND 9 DEGREES ARE 12 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
THE FEBRUARY NORM AND 5 TO 10 DEGREES UNDER THE MONTHLY AVERAGES
REPORTED IN JANUARY 2015.

THE COLD WAS PARTICULARLY BRUTAL DURING THE SECOND HALF OF FEBRUARY.
FROM 2/12 THROUGH 2/28...MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED NEARLY 20
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. READINGS ON THE COLDEST DAYS WERE UP TO 30
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. NUMEROUS DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM
TEMPERATURES WERE ESTABLISHED DURING THIS PERIOD. THE LOW
TEMPERATURE WAS BELOW ZERO AT MANY PLACES ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. IN
FACT DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH...THE MERCURY BOTTOMED OUT BELOW ZERO
ON MORE THAN HALF THE MORNINGS AT THE MAJORITY OF LOCATIONS...
SETTING A RECORD FOR THE MOST DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE
IN FEBRUARY. THIS INTENSE COLD RESULTED IN EXTENSIVE ICE DEVELOPMENT
ON LAKE SUPERIOR BY MID MONTH...WHICH TENDED TO ENHANCE THE COLD
FURTHER BY REDUCING MODERATION OFF THE LAKE. THE COLDEST DAYS ON
2/14... 2/15...2/18...2/19 AND 2/22 FEATURED SUB-ZERO MAXIMUMS AS
WELL AT SOME LOCATIONS. AT LEAST A FEW SPOTS SAW THE THERMOMETER DIP
TO -20 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/13...2/15...2/16...2/19...2/20...2/22...
2/23 AND ON EACH MORNING FROM 2/25 THROUGH 2/28. READINGS FELL TO
-30 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/15...2/19...2/20...2/23...2/26 AND 2/27.
MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY REPORTED THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE OBSERVED
IN FEBRUARY EARLY ON 2/19...A FRIGID -40. THE WARMEST PERIOD WAS
DURING THE SECOND WEEK OF FEBRUARY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED
NEAR NORMAL ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/11. BUT THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE IN
FEBRUARY OCCURRED DURING A BRIEF MODERATION ON 2/24...WHEN THE
MERCURY AT MENOMINEE PEAKED AT 32. NO OTHER LOCATIONS REPORTED ABOVE
FREEZING TEMPERATURES DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH.

SINCE THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT SUPPRESSED ANY MOISTURE-LADEN LOW
PRESSURE SYSTEMS TO THE SOUTH...AREAS AWAY FROM LAKE SUPERIOR AND
THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS THAT WERE COMMON DURING THE COLD AIR OUTBREAKS
THAT OCCURRED IN THE WAKE OF THE NUMEROUS...DRY ALBERTA-CLIPPER-TYPE
LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS THAT PASSED NEARBY SAW VERY DRY WEATHER IN
FEBRUARY. MOST LOCATIONS NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER
TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE PICKED UP LESS THAN 0.50 INCH OR EVEN
0.25 INCH OF WATER EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION IN FEBRUARY...AS LITTLE
AS 25 PERCENT OF NORMAL. MONTHLY SNOWFALL IN THIS AREA WAS ONLY 3 TO
6 INCHES...NO MORE THAN 33 TO 50 PERCENT OF THE FEBRUARY AVERAGE.
CLOSER TO LAKE SUPERIOR...THE LAKE INFLUENCE LIFTED PRECIPITATION
AND SNOWFALL NEAR OR ABOVE NORMAL. AS MUCH AS 2.64 INCHES OF LIQUID
EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION AND 46.5 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...
ABOUT 130 AND 175 PERCENT OF THE TYPICAL FEBRUARY NUMBERS AT THAT
SITE. PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 50.7
INCHES OF FEBRUARY SNOWFALL. OVERALL...THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS TENDED
TO DIMINISH LATER IN THE MONTH DUE TO THE EXTENSIVE ICE COVER THAT
GREW ON LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE INTENSE COLD.

PERIODS OF MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS IN A COLD WEST TO NORTHWEST
FLOW OVER THE KEWEENAW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5 DROPPED UP TO A FOOT OF SNOW
AT SOME LOCATIONS...WITH CALUMET IN HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURING OVER
13 INCHES DURING THIS TIME.

A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN THE WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW
ALOFT ON THE SOUTHWEST FLANK OF THE DEEP TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA
CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...
MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF UPPER MICHIGAN. NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY MEASURED ALMOST 13 INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME.

TWO OF THE STRONGER DISTURBANCES TO IMPACT THE U.P. IN FEBRUARY
OCCURRED NEAR MID MONTH. THE FIRST OF THESE DROPPED UP TO 10 INCHES
OF SNOW AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY ON 2/11 AND 2/12. GUSTY
NORTH WINDS UP TO 45 MPH ALSO CAUSED CONSIDERABLE BLOWING SNOW NEAR
LAKE SUPERIOR AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN EXPOSED LOCATIONS THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND MUNISING.

THE SECOND DISTURBANCE BROUGHT MORE MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS...GUSTY NORTH WINDS TO 50 MPH AND EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ON
2/14. NUMEROUS ROADS ACROSS CENTRAL UPPER MICHIGAN WERE FORCED TO
CLOSE DURING THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD. AS MUCH AS 10 INCHES OF
SNOW FELL FROM 2/13 INTO EARLY 2/15 IN THE FAVORED SNOW BELTS IN
MARQUETTE AND ALGER COUNTIES. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -30 DURING
THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. THE NEXT IN THE
LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS NORTHERN ONTARIO ON
2/23 INTO 2/24. AS MUCH AS 7 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...AND
NORTH WINDS GUSTING UP TO 40 TO 45 MPH IN THE WAKE OF AN ARCTIC COLD
FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED ANOTHER ROUND OF NEAR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT
EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/24.

                ...FEBRUARY 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
           ...TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MOST PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       5.0     19.3     -14.3     7.8 /1899/ RECORD COLDEST

NEWBERRY         4.6     18.7     -14.1     5.7 /1917/ RECORD COLDEST

MARQUETTE NWS    2.4     15.5     -13.1     5.6 /2014/ RECORD COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN    4.2     17.5     -13.3     4.1 /1904/    2ND COLDEST

IRONWOOD         2.5     14.9     -12.4    -0.3 /1936/    2ND COLDEST

MUNISING         5.9     19.4     -13.5     4.8 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

HOUGHTON         4.6     16.9     -12.3     1.7 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY   7.3     20.7     -13.4     1.8 /1875/    6TH COLDEST


          ...RECORD NUMBER OF SUB ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE DAYS
                  IN FEBRUARY 2015 AT SOME PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       21        5       +16      17 /1972&   RECORD NUMBER
                                                2014/

IRON MOUNTAIN    22        9       +13      21 /2014/   RECORD NUMBER

MARQUETTE NWS    21        9       +12      19 /1979/   RECORD NUMBER

IRONWOOD         20       11        +9      24 /1936/    2ND GREATEST

HOUGHTON         17        5       +12      23 /1917/    3RD GREATEST

NEWBERRY         17        6       +11      26 /1904/    3RD GREATEST

MUNISING         15        4       +11      20 /1917&    3RD GREATEST
                                                1936/

MARQUETTE CITY   15        3       +12      22 /1875/    7TH GREATEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
           ...WINTER DEC 2014-FEB 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
                   ...COLD DESPITE MILD DECEMBER...

              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD     2014-15 RANK

MARQUETTE NWS   11.6     15.9     -4.3     7.5 /2013-14/  6TH COLDEST

MANISTIQUE      15.1     20.1     -5.0    11.4 /2013-14/  8TH COLDEST

NEWBERRY        14.3     19.2     -4.9    10.1 /2013-14/ 11TH COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN   13.0     16.6     -3.6     7.2 /2013-14/ 13TH COLDEST

MUNISING        14.8     20.1     -5.3     9.1 /1919-20/ 14TH COLDEST

HOUGHTON        14.0     17.6     -3.6     8.8 /1917-18/ 18TH COLDEST

IRONWOOD        11.5     14.4     -2.9     5.1 /2013-14/ 18TH COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY  16.8     21.0     -4.2    11.2 /1884-85/ 23RD COLDEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SOME OTHER TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION OBSERVATIONS ACROSS UPPER
MICHIGAN IN FEBRUARY 2015 INCLUDE:

IRONWOOD...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.5 (12.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.48 INCHES (0.21 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 33.3 INCHES (5.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

WATERSMEET (GOGEBIC COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.63 INCH
                              SNOWFALL 12.0 INCHES

GREENLAND (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.18 INCHES
                               SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

BERGLAND DAM (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.8 DEGREE
                                  SNOWFALL 30.6 INCHES

HOUGHTON COUNTY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (12.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
 AIRPORT          PRECIPITATION 1.44 INCHES (0.07 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
                  SNOWFALL 41.8 INCHES (10.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

ATLANTIC MINE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.52 INCHES
                                  SNOWFALL 46.0 INCHES

PAINESDALE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 50.7 INCHES

COPPER HARBOR...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.6 DEGREES
                PRECIPITATION 1.40 INCHES

JACOBSVILLE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.2 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 1.17 INCHES
                                SNOWFALL 17.7 INCHES

BARAGA...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 3.7 DEGREES
         PRECIPITATION 0.91 INCH
         SNOWFALL 17.9 INCHES

WATTON (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.8 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.01 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 12.8 INCHES

HERMAN (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.2 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.00 INCH
                         SNOWFALL 34.1 INCHES

CLARKSBURG (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.1 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.65 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 17.1 INCHES

BIG BAY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.0 DEGREES
                             PRECIPITATION 1.58 INCHES
                             SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

MARQUETTE CITY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.3 (13.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                 PRECIPITATION 1.28 INCHES (0.03INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                 SNOWFALL 22.6 INCHES (1.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

HARVEY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.0 DEGREES
                            PRECIPITATION 1.12 INCHES
                            SNOWFALL 23.1 INCHES

CHATHAM (ALGER COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.7 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.45 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 33.8 INCHES

MUNISING...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.9 (13.5 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 2.64 INCHES (0.63 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 46.5 INCHES (20.0 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

NEWBERRY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (14.1 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.77 INCHES (0.09 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 30.8 INCHES (7.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

STAMBAUGH (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -2.4 DEGREES
                          PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                          SNOWFALL 4.8 INCHES

AMASA (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.5 DEGREE
                      PRECIPITATION 0.55 INCH
                      SNOWFALL 11.6 INCHES

IRON MOUNTAIN...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.2 (13.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                PRECIPITATION 0.28 INCH (0.72 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES (5.2 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

NORWAY (DICKINSON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                            SNOWFALL 5.7 INCHES

MENOMINEE...PRECIPITATION 0.22 INCH
            SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES

GLADSTONE (DELTA COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.77 INCH
                           SNOWFALL 10.5 INCHES

GARDEN CORNERS (DELTA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.7 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.74 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 14.9 INCHES

COOKS (SCHOOLCRAFT COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 17.5 INCHES

MANISTIQUE...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.0 (14.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
             PRECIPITATION 0.56 INCH (0.58 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
             SNOWFALL 12.1 INCHES (2.5 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

                        FEBRUARY WEATHER SUMMARY

A WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW AROUND A DEEP UPPER TROUGH CENTERED NEAR
HUDSON BAY DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF COLD CANADIAN AIR INTO THE
UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/5. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS CHILLY PERIOD RAN BETWEEN 5 AND AS MUCH AS 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL. THE COLDEST NIGHT WAS ON 2/4-2/5...WHEN A HIGH PRESSURE
CENTER SHIFTING OVER IOWA EXTENDED INTO SOUTH CENTRAL UPPER
MICHIGAN. UNDER A MOSTLY CLEAR SKY...THE MERCURY TUMBLED BELOW ZERO
AWAY FROM THE MODERATING INFLUENCE OF LAKE SUPERIOR AND ALL THE WAY
TO -32 AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY. THE COLD AIR FLOW OVER
RELATIVELY WARM LAKE SUPERIOR RESULTED IN SOME SNOW SHOWERS IN THE
FAVORED SNOW BELTS...MAINLY ON 2/2 INTO 2/5. THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS
WERE HEAVIEST OVER THE KEWEENAW...WHERE SNOW TOTALS AT SOME
LOCATIONS REACHED NEAR A FOOT DURING THIS STRETCH. CALUMET IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURED 13 INCHES OF SNOW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5.

GUSTY SOUTHWEST WINDS UP TO 35 TO 40 MPH ON THE NORTHWEST FLANK OF
THE RETREATING HIGH PRESSURE RIDGE IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/5 SIGNALED
THE WEAKENING OF THE UPPER TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA...ALLOWING A
MORE MODERATE WEST-TO-EAST FLOW TO DOMINATE DURING THE WEEK OF 2/6
INTO 2/11. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED WITHIN A FEW DEGREES OF
NORMAL ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN
THE MORE ZONAL FLOW ALOFT CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE
EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF THE
U.P. NEGAUNEE IN MARQUETTE COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 12.9
INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME. AHMEEK AND MOHAWK IN KEWEENAW
COUNTY MEASURED 8.4 AND 8.1 INCHES OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY...AND
NEWBERRY REPORTED 6.3 INCHES. THERE WAS ALSO SOME FREEZING DRIZZLE
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/7-2/8...MAINLY NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER.

A STRONG DISTURBANCE DROPPING SOUTHEAST THROUGH CENTRAL CANADA
CAUSED A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM TO MOVE FROM THE NORTHERN PLAINS AND
ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN DURING THE MORNING ON 2/11...BRINGING A
WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OF 1 TO 3 INCHES TO THE AREA. AFTER THE LOW
SHIFTED TO THE EAST LATER IN THE MORNING ON 2/11 AND STRONG NORTH
WINDS DREW MUCH COLDER AIR INTO THE UPPER LAKES...THE SNOW
TRANSITIONED TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS. NORTH WINDS GUSTING AS
HIGH AS 35 TO 45 MPH CAUSED EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ALONG WITH
BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF SOME ROADS...INCLUDING HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN
MARQUETTE AND MUNISING. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -25 IN THE EARLY
MORNING HOURS ON 2/12. BY THE TIME THE APPROACH OF HIGH PRESSURE
DIMINISHED THE SNOW SHOWERS LATER IN THE DAY ON 2/12...6 INCHES OR
MORE OF SNOW HAD ACCUMULATED AT MANY LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...
WITH NEARLY 10 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY. NO MORE THAN
AN INCH FELL FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE.

MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/12 AND 2/13 WITHIN THE ARCTIC AIRMASS
ASSOCIATED WITH THE CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE TRAILING THE DEPARTING
SURFACE LOW AVERAGED AROUND 20 DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. THE ARRIVAL OF
THIS RIDGE DURING THE NIGHT OF 2/12-2/13 ENDED THE LINGERING SNOW
SHOWERS AND BROUGHT ABOUT SOME CLEARING...SETTING THE STAGE FOR A
VERY COLD NIGHT. THE THERMOMETER READ LOWER THAN -20 DURING THE
EARLY MORNING ON 2/13 AT MANY PLACES...INCLUDING -27 AT STAMBAUGH.

THE NEXT CLIPPER DISTURBANCE THAT WAS EMBEDDED IN THE DEEP UPPER
TROUGH DIVED SOUTHEAST ACROSS ONTARIO ON 2/13...BRINGING A PERIOD OF
LIGHT SNOW TO THE UPPER GREAT LAKES. AS THE LOW SHIFTED FARTHER TO
THE EAST...ITS ATTENDANT COLD FRONT SWUNG ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/13-2/14 ACCOMPANIED BY MORE SNOW SHOWERS AND
INCREASING NORTH WINDS THAT GUSTED AS HIGH AS 45 TO 50 MPH NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR ON 2/14. THESE STRONG WINDS BLEW THE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS FARTHER INLAND THAN USUAL AND ALL THE WAY TO THE LAKE
MICHIGAN SHORE TO THE EAST OF ESCANABA. THE GUSTY WINDS ALSO CAUSED
EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN OPEN AREAS. A
NUMBER OF ROADS WERE CLOSED DUE TO THESE DANGEROUS CONDITIONS...
INCLUDING HIGHWAY US-2 FROM MANISTIQUE TO RAPID RIVER IN DELTA
COUNTY...MUCH OF U.S. 41 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND RAPID RIVER...
PORTIONS OF M-35 IN MARQUETTE COUNTY AND M-28 FROM MARQUETTE TO
MUNISING. AT SOME LOCATIONS...TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 NEVER ROSE ABOVE
ZERO. THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD EASED BY THE EARLY MORNING ON
2/15 WITH THE CLOSER APPROACH OF ARCTIC HIGH PRESSURE THAT CAUSED
THE WINDS AND SNOW SHOWERS TO SUBSIDE. BUT THE INFLUX OF BITTERLY
COLD ARCTIC AIR STILL CAUSED THE THERMOMETER TO FREE FALL TO -30 OR
LOWER AT SOME PLACES BY DAYBREAK ON 2/15. A LOCATION SOUTHWEST OF
BARAGA REPORTED A LOW OF -31. STONINGTON IN DELTA COUNTY AND
STAMBAUGH WERE CLOSE BEHIND WITH A -30 MINIMUM. EVEN WHERE THE
OBSERVED TEMPERATURES WERE NOT AS LOW...WIND CHILLS STILL PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AT MANY PLACES DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15. DESPITE A
RETURN OF SOME SUNSHINE IN THE AFTERNOON...THE MERCURY NEVER REACHED
ZERO AT NEWBERRY ON 2/15...TOPPING OUT AT ONLY -1. SNOW TOTALS FROM
2/13 INTO 2/15 REACHED 3 TO 8 INCHES AT MANY LOCATIONS...WITH AS
MUCH AS 10 INCHES IN THE NORTH WIND SNOW BELTS FROM NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY TO CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY. ONCE AGAIN...NO MORE
THAN AN INCH FELL NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON
MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 AND 2/15
WERE ABOUT 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

A SERIES OF RELATIVELY WEAK AND MOISTURE-STARVED ALBERTA CLIPPER-
TYPE DISTURBANCES MOVED WITHIN THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT AND ACROSS
THE UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/16 INTO 2/18...DROPPING ONLY LIGHT SNOW
OR FLURRIES. GROWING ICE COVER ON LAKE SUPERIOR TENDED TO LIMIT THE
LAKE EFFECT PRECIPITATION THAT FOLLOWED THESE DISTURBANCES...BUT A
LOCATION NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY IMPACTED BY SOME HEAVIER
SNOW SHOWERS DOWNWIND OF MORE OPEN WATER OVER THE DEEPER CENTRAL
PART OF THE LAKE STILL PICKED UP NEARLY 14 INCHES OF THE WHITE STUFF
ON 2/16 INTO 2/18. A LOCATION NEAR NEWBERRY REPORTED A LOW
TEMPERATURE OF -22 NEAR DAYBREAK ON 2/16. A PARTICULARLY COLD
AIRMASS SURGED INTO THE AREA ON 2/18 INTO 2/20 IN THE WAKE OF THE
LAST OF THESE WEAK LOWS. TEMPERATURES NEVER ROSE ABOVE ZERO ON BOTH
2/18 AND 2/19 AT A NUMBER OF PLACES...ESPECIALLY ON 2/19 WHEN SUB-
ZERO MAXIMUMS WERE THE RULE AT MOST SPOTS. THE THERMOMETER PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AGAIN AT THE COLDER SPOTS EARLY ON 2/19...INCLUDING THE
LOWEST MONTHLY READING OF -40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY. WIND
CHILLS IN THE -25 TO -35 RANGE WERE COMMON EVEN AWAY FROM THESE
COLDEST SPOTS. ANOTHER VERY COLD NIGHT FOLLOWED ON 2/19-2/20...WHEN
TEMPERATURES FELL OFF AS LOW AS -39 AT A COLD SPOT NOT FAR FROM
NEWBERRY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED 10 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL ON 2/16 AND 2/17 BUT THEN 25 TO AS MUCH AS 30 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL DURING THE PEAK OF THE COLD ON 2/18...2/19 AND 2/20.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. MOST PLACES
PICKED UP 1 TO 4 INCHES DURING THIS EVENT BEFORE THE WIDESPREAD SNOW
DIMINISHED TO SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS BY THE AFTERNOON ON 2/21.
ALTHOUGH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/21 MODERATED TO BETWEEN 10
AND 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL...THIS WARMING TREND WAS BRIEF. A
REINFORCING COLD FRONT SWUNG THROUGH THE UPPER LAKES DURING THE
NIGHT ON 2/21-2/22 ACCOMPANIED BY ONLY SOME SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS.
ANOTHER BITTERLY COLD AIRMASS INVADED THE AREA IN ITS WAKE...
DROPPING THE MERCURY TO AS LOW AS -25 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY AND STONINGTON BY DAYBREAK. READINGS ON 2/22 FAILED
TO RISE ABOVE ZERO AT A FEW PLACES DESPITE AT LEAST PARTIAL
SUNSHINE. THE OVERNIGHT ON 2/22-2/23 WAS ANOTHER RECORD COLD ONE AT
SOME LOCATIONS AS HIGH PRESSURE MOVED OVERHEAD AND WINDS TURNED
LIGHT. THE MERCURY DIPPED TO -30 OR LOWER AT MANY OF THE COLD SPOTS
AND ALL THE WAY TO -38 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION. MEAN DAILY
TEMPERATURES ON 2/22 AND 2/23 RAN 25 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

THE NEXT IN THE LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS
NORTHERN ONTARIO ON 2/23 INTO 2/24. WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OVERSPREAD
THE U.P. DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/23-2/24 AND ACCUMULATED 1 TO 3 INCHES
AT MOST PLACES BEFORE THE PASSAGE OF AN ARCTIC COLD FRONT CAUSED THE
SNOW TO DIMINISH TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS...THE COVERAGE OF WHICH
WERE LIMITED BY ICE ON LAKE SUPERIOR. THE SOUTHWEST FLOW AHEAD OF
THIS FRONT ALLOWED TEMPERATURES TO MODERATE...AT LEAST BRIEFLY...
WITH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/24 RISING TO 5 TO 10 DEGREES
BELOW NORMAL. IN FACT...THE MERCURY REACHED 32 AT MENOMINEE IN THE
AFTERNOON ON 2/24...THE ONLY PLACE AND TIME READINGS TOUCHED THE
FREEZING MARK IN FEBRUARY ACROSS THE UPPER PENINSULA. NORTH WINDS
GUSTING AS HIGH AS 40 TO 45 MPH BEHIND THE FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED
ANOTHER ROUND OF BLOWING SNOW...WITH LOCAL WHITEOUT CONDITIONS IN
THE AFTERNOON AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...ESPECIALLY
ACROSS WESTERN ALGER COUNTY. INCLUDING THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS...
MUNISING AND CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY REPORTED 7 INCHES AND 6 INCHES
OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY DURING THIS EVENT.

THE GUSTY NORTH WIND DREW MORE ARCTIC AIR BACK INTO THE GREAT LAKES
AHEAD OF THE NEXT CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM...CAUSING
TEMPERATURES TO PLUMMET UNDER -20 AT SOME OF THE COLDER LOCATIONS
OVER THE WEST AND AS LOW AS -27 AT AMASA IN IRON COUNTY BY DAYBREAK
ON 2/25. THIS COLD HIGH AND AIRMASS DOMINATED INTO 2/28...WHEN THE
ANTICYCLONE SHIFTED TOWARD THE MID ATLANTIC STATES AND A SOUTHWEST
FLOW AND THE STRENGTHENING LATE FEBRUARY SUNSHINE ALLOWED FOR AN
EASING OF THE COLD DURING THE AFTERNOON. THE LOWEST REPORTED
TEMPERATURE WAS -36 JUST SOUTHWEST OF BARAGA AT DAWN ON 2/26...-31
AT CLARKSBURG/ CHAMPION AND AT A SPOT JUST INLAND FROM MUNISING ON
2/27...AND -27 AT STAMBAUGH ON 2/28. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AROUND
20 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL ON 2/25 THROUGH 2/27 MODERATED TO AROUND 10
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE ON 2/28.

                           APRIL FORECAST

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING AN EQUAL CHANCE
OF AN ABOVE AND BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE BUT A GREATER
THAN CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL 2015.

                          APRIL CLIMATOLOGY

AS THE SUN CONTINUES ITS MARCH NORTHWARD DURING THE FOURTH MONTH OF
THE YEAR...DAYLIGHT AND AVERAGE TEMPERATURES INCREASE STEADILY. THE
DAILY POSSIBLE SUNSHINE INCREASES FROM 769 MINUTES ON 4/1 TO 860
MINUTES ON THE LAST DAY OF THE MONTH. ON 4/1...NORMAL MAXIMUM AND
MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT THE MARQUETTE NWS ARE 41 AND 21...BUT
REBOUND TO 55 AND 35 ON 4/30. MONTHLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
THROUGHOUT UPPER MICHIGAN ARE 12 TO 14 DEGREES HIGHER IN APRIL THAN
IN MARCH. THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES OFTEN KEEP
TEMPERATURES NEAR THE SHORE DURING THE DAY MUCH LOWER THAN FARTHER
INLAND.

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION IN APRIL IS GREATER THAN IN MARCH OVER MUCH OF
INTERIOR UPPER MICHIGAN...BUT GENERALLY LESS IN AREAS NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR AS THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS INCREASE LOW LEVEL STABILITY
AND REDUCE THE THREAT OF LAKE EFFECT SNOW AND CONVECTIVE SHOWERS.
SNOWFALL DURING WARM AND/OR DRY APRILS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN IS
OFTEN LESS THAN AN INCH.

SUMMER-LIKE WEATHER CAN OCCUR DURING APRIL. RECORD HIGH TEMPERATURES
NEAR THE END OF THE MONTH GO ABOVE 90 IN SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING
THE 94 AND 92 DEGREE READINGS OBSERVED AT IRON MOUNTAIN AND THE
MARQUETTE NWS ON 4/22/80. ALTHOUGH APRIL 1987 IS THE WARMEST ON
RECORD OR AT LEAST IN THE TOP FIVE WARMEST AT MANY PLACES...THE
SECOND HALF OF APRIL 1990 STANDS OUT AS A PERIOD OF UNPRECEDENTED
WARMTH. IN FACT...THE WEEK BETWEEN 4/22/90 AND 4/29/90 IS THE
WARMEST ON RECORD AT ALL REPORTING STATIONS. TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS WEEK AVERAGED AS HIGH AS 68 AT MUNISING AND THE MARQUETTE
NWS...67 AT ONTONAGON...65 AT IRON MOUNTAIN...IRONWOOD AND
MANISTIQUE...64 AT HOUGHTON AND 62 AT NEWBERRY. AT MANY OF THESE
SITES... THE HIGHEST APRIL TEMPERATURE ON RECORD OCCURRED DURING
THIS WEEK...INCLUDING 89 AT MUNISING (4/26/90) AND ONTONAGON
(4/25/90)...88 AT HOUGHTON (4/25/90)...84 AT MANISTIQUE (4/26/90)
AND 82 AT NEWBERRY (4/25/90). SEVEN OF THE 10 HIGHEST APRIL MAXIMUM
TEMPERATURES RECORDED AT MANISTIQUE OCCURRED BETWEEN 4/23/90 AND
4/29/90. ALL OF THESE TEMPERATURES WOULD BE CONSIDERED NORMAL OR
EVEN ABOVE NORMAL DURING MID SUMMER.

WHEN APRIL TEMPERATURES SOAR QUICKLY WITH LINGERING DEEP WINTER SNOW
COVER...SNOWMELT CAN CAUSE SERIOUS FLOODING...ESPECIALLY IF HEAVY
RAINS FALL AROUND THE TIME OF WARMUP. IN 2002...THE COMBINATION OF
DEEP EARLY APRIL SNOW COVER AND A FEW DAYS OF HEAVY RAIN BEFORE
TEMPERATURES WARMED AS HIGH AS 80 TO 85 CAUSED DISASTROUS MID-APRIL
FLOODING IN WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. THE FLOODING WAS SO BAD IN
GOGEBIC COUNTY THEN MICHIGAN GOVERNOR JOHN ENGLER DECLARED THAT
COUNTY A DISASTER AREA AND DISPATCHED MICHIGAN NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS
TO ASSIST WITH RECOVERY. ALTHOUGH SEVERE WEATHER IS UNCOMMON ACROSS
UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL...AN OUTBREAK OF EARLY SEASON SEVERE
THUNDERSTORMS ENDED THIS PREMATURE SUMMER WARMTH IN APRIL 2002.

ALTHOUGH AVERAGE TEMPERATURES CLIMB QUICKLY IN APRIL AND SUMMER-LIKE
HEAT SOMETIMES HERALDS THE COMING WARM SEASON...WINTER CAN RETURN
WITH A VENGEANCE EVEN AT MONTHS END. FOR STATIONS WITH A LONGER TERM
RECORD...APRIL 1907 STANDS OUT AS THE COLDEST ON RECORD AT IRONWOOD
AND HOUGHTON. AT HOUGHTON...THE MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE THAT MONTH
WAS A WINTER-LIKE 27.9 DEGREES. APRIL 1950 WAS THE COLDEST FOURTH
MONTH ON RECORD AT NEWBERRY...IRON MOUNTAIN AND MUNISING. MORE
RECENTLY...APRIL IN 2013 AND 2014 FEATURED PERIODS OF VERY COLD
WEATHER AND RANK AMONG THE TOP FIVE COLDEST AT SOME PLACES. RECORD
LOW TEMPERATURES IN APRIL ARE BELOW ZERO AT MOST LOCATIONS. THE
MERCURY FELL AS LOW AS -12 AT IRONWOOD ON 4/7/82. SUB-ZERO MINIMUMS
HAVE OCCURRED EVEN AFTER MID MONTH AT SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING -8
AT IRONWOOD ON 4/17/83 AND -7 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN MARQUETTE
COUNTY ON 4/16/2014.

RECORD HIGH APRIL SNOWFALL AT ALMOST ALL LOCATIONS EXCEPT THE
SOUTHERN TIER COUNTIES IS 20 INCHES OR MORE. A HISTORIC BLIZZARD
STRUCK THE NORTHERN COUNTIES OF UPPER MICHIGAN ON 4/3 INTO 4/8 IN
2007. THE COMBINATION OF LAKE ENHANCED SNOW AND NORTH WIND GUSTS AT
OR ABOVE 50 MPH CAUSED WIDESPREAD BLIZZARD CONDITIONS ON 4/4 AND 4/5
THAT YEAR NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR. BY THE TIME THE SNOW ENDED EARLY ON
4/8/2007...AS MUCH AS 59.0 INCHES HAD FALLEN AT PAINESDALE IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY. IN APRIL 2013...A PERSISTENT AND DEEP UPPER TROUGH
OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH AMERICA RESULTED IN STUBBORN CHILL
UNTIL THE LAST WEEK OF THE MONTH AND SEVERAL HEAVY SNOW FALLS THAT
PUSHED THE MONTHLY SNOWFALL TO RECORD LEVELS AT OR ABOVE 50 INCHES
AT SEVERAL LOCATIONS OVER WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. MOST LOCATIONS
ENDURED TOP TEN APRIL SNOWFALL IN 2013. APRIL 2014 ALSO FEATURED
SOME HEAVY SNOWFALL THAT PLACED THE MONTH IN THE LIST OF TOP FIVE
SNOWIEST APRILS ON RECORD AT SOME SPOTS.

               OUTLOOK FOR LATE SPRING INTO SUMMER

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING A GREATER THAN
CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF AN ABOVE NORMAL 3-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE
AND BELOW NORMAL 3-MONTH PRECIPITATION OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN
MAY THROUGH JULY 2015.

GO TO HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/CLIMATE/L3MTO.PHP TO ACCESS DETAILED
LOCAL THREE-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OUTLOOKS FOR A NUMBER OF SITES
IN UPPER MICHIGAN.

CHECK OUT HTTP://WWW.CPC.NCEP.NOAA.GOV FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT
THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER AND MORE LONG RANGE PREDICTIONS.

NOTE THAT STATISTICS FOR THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE IN
NEGAUNEE TOWNSHIP ARE BASED ON RECORDS WHICH BEGAN IN OCTOBER 1961.
THIRTY YEAR NORMALS USED ARE FOR THE PERIOD OF 1981 THROUGH 2010.
NOTE ALL TEMPERATURES ARE IN FAHRENHEIT AND PRECIPITATION IS IN
INCHES. ALL CLIMATE DATA LISTED IN THIS PRODUCT ARE UNOFFICIAL. FOR
OFFICIAL DATA...PLEASE REFER TO THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER.
ALSO NOTE THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE DATA FROM CHIPPEWA AND
MACKINAC COUNTIES.

NWS MARQUETTE WEB PAGE IS AT HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/MQT (ALL LOWER
CASE). CONTACT THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER AT (828) 271-4800
OR WWW.NCDC.NOAA.GOV.

$$

KC





000
CXUS53 KMQT 280351 AAD
CLMMQT

CLIMATE REPORT...FINAL
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MARQUETTE MI
1150 PM EDT FRI MAR 27 2015

...................................

...THE MARQUETTE MI CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR THE MONTH OF FEBRUARY 2015...

CLIMATE NORMAL PERIOD 1981 TO 2010
CLIMATE RECORD PERIOD 1961 TO 2015

WEATHER         OBSERVED          NORMAL  DEPART  LAST YEAR`S
                 VALUE   DATE(S)  VALUE   FROM    VALUE  DATE(S)
                                          NORMAL
................................................................
TEMPERATURE (F)
RECORD
 HIGH              61   02/17/1981
 LOW              -34   02/17/1979
HIGHEST            24   02/28        24       0       41  02/20
                        02/10                             02/19
LOWEST            -28   02/23         5     -33      -28  02/28
AVG. MAXIMUM     11.8              25.6   -13.8     16.3
AVG. MINIMUM     -6.9               5.3   -12.2     -5.1
MEAN              2.4              15.5   -13.1      5.6
DAYS MAX >= 90      0               0.0     0.0        0
DAYS MAX <= 32     28              20.6     7.4       26
DAYS MIN <= 32     28              27.6     0.4       28
DAYS MIN <= 0      22              10.2    11.8       20

PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
RECORD
 MAXIMUM         5.35   2002
 MINIMUM         0.48   1994
TOTALS           1.67              2.14   -0.47     1.34
DAILY AVG.       0.06              0.08   -0.02     0.05
DAYS >= .01        16              13.1     2.9       13
DAYS >= .10         7               5.5     1.5        6
DAYS >= .50         0               1.0    -1.0        0
DAYS >= 1.00        0               0.2    -0.2        0
GREATEST
 24 HR. TOTAL    0.40   02/14 TO 02/14

SNOWFALL (INCHES)
RECORDS
 TOTAL           91.9   2002
TOTALS           40.7              35.9     4.8     20.9
SINCE 7/1       154.0             152.4     1.6    129.5
SNOWDEPTH AVG.     31                24       7       31
DAYS >= 1.0        12               8.0     4.0        7
GREATEST
 SNOW DEPTH        37   02/09                         35  02/22
                                                          02/21
 24 HR TOTAL      9.6   02/08 TO 02/09

DEGREE_DAYS
HEATING TOTAL    1747              1387     360     1655
 SINCE 7/1       7311              6624     687     7322
COOLING TOTAL       0                 0       0        0
 SINCE 1/1          0                 0       0        0
.................................................................

WIND (MPH)
AVERAGE WIND SPEED              MM
HIGHEST WIND SPEED/DIRECTION    MM        DATE   MM
HIGHEST GUST SPEED/DIRECTION    40/360    DATE  02/14

SKY COVER
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (PERCENT)   MM
AVERAGE SKY COVER             MM
NUMBER OF DAYS FAIR          MM
NUMBER OF DAYS PC            MM
NUMBER OF DAYS CLOUDY        MM

AVERAGE RH (PERCENT)     MM

WEATHER CONDITIONS. NUMBER OF DAYS WITH
THUNDERSTORM              0     MIXED PRECIP               1
HEAVY RAIN                0     RAIN                       0
LIGHT RAIN                0     FREEZING RAIN              0
LT FREEZING RAIN          3     HAIL                       0
HEAVY SNOW                0     SNOW                       1
LIGHT SNOW               24     SLEET                      1
FOG                       0     FOG W/VIS <= 1/4 MILE      0
HAZE                      0

-  INDICATES NEGATIVE NUMBERS.
R  INDICATES RECORD WAS SET OR TIED.
MM INDICATES DATA IS MISSING.
T  INDICATES TRACE AMOUNT.

&&

...FEBRUARY 2015 MONTHLY CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR UPPER MICHIGAN...
/THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE CHIPPEWA AND MACKINAC COUNTIES/

...EXTREMELY COLD MAINLY BECAUSE OF SECOND HALF CHILL...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT NEWBERRY AND MANISTIQUE...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT THE MARQUETTE NWS...
...SECOND COLDEST FEBRUARY AT IRONWOOD AND IRON MOUNTAIN...
...THIRD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT HOUGHTON AND MUNISING...
...SIXTH COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MARQUETTE CITY...

...PRECIPITATION AND SNOWFALL NEAR TO ABOVE NORMAL NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR BUT BELOW NORMAL OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL...

FEBRUARY CLIMATE STATISTICS FOR THE MARQUETTE NWS IN NEGAUNEE
 TOWNSHIP

                                    NORMAL   DEPARTURE
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE          2.4     15.5  MINUS  -13.1
AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE    11.8     25.6  MINUS  -13.8
AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE     -6.9      5.3  MINUS  -12.2
HEATING DEGREE DAYS         1747     1387   PLUS    360
COOLING DEGREE DAYS            0        0             0
TOTAL PRECIPITATION         1.67     2.14  MINUS   0.47
TOTAL SNOWFALL              40.7     35.9   PLUS    4.8

HIGHEST TEMPERATURE:                    24 ON 2/10 AND 2/28
LOWEST TEMPERATURE:                    -28 ON 2/23
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY PRECIPITATION:  0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST 24 HOUR PRECIPITATION:       0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY SNOWFALL:        9.2 ON 2/8
GREATEST 24 HOUR SNOWFALL:             9.6 ON 2/8-2/9
PEAK WIND SPEED:     40 MPH FROM THE NORTH ON 2/14

DAILY RECORD SNOWFALL ON 2/8...9.2 /OLD RECORD 7.6..1992/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/14...6 /8...1963/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/15...5 /7...1991/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-25 /-21...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-4 /ZERO...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/20...-26 /-15...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/23...-28 /-15...1965/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/26...7 /8...1964&2014/
RECORD LOWEST FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE...2.4 /OLD RECORD 5.6...2014/
RECORD NUMBER OF FEBRUARY DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO MINIMUM
 TEMPERATURE...21 DAYS /OLD RECORD 19 DAYS...1979/
---------------------------------------------------------------------
GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS (FEET/METERS ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL)

                            LAKE SUPERIOR  LAKE MICHIGAN-HURON
02/01/15 DAILY MEAN         602.02/183.49     579.12/176.52
02/28/15 DAILY MEAN         601.81/183.43     579.04/176.49
AVG JAN 2015 DAILY MEAN     602.16/183.54     579.11/176.51
AVG FEB 2014 DAILY MEAN     601.19/183.24     577.27/175.95
LONG TERM FEB DAILY MEAN    601.25/183.26     578.35/176.28
MAXIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      602.46/183.63     581.07/177.11
                                (1986)           (1986)
MINIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      599.61/182.76     576.08/175.59
                                (1926)           (1964)

...GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS WELL ABOVE NORMAL AGAIN IN FEBRUARY...

ALTHOUGH GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS FELL SLOWLY IN FEBRUARY 2015 AS IS
NORMAL...THESE LEVELS REMAINED WELL ABOVE THE LONG-TERM AVERAGE. AT
THE END OF FEBRUARY...THE LEVEL OF LAKES MICHIGAN AND HURON WAS 8 TO
9 INCHES HIGHER THAN NORMAL AND OVER 21 INCHES HIGHER THAN ON 2/28
IN 2014. AS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR...THE 2/28 LEVEL OF THAT BODY OF WATER
WAS ALMOST 7 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL AND OVER 7 INCHES HIGHER THAN
OBSERVED ON 2/28 IN 2014.

DUE TO THE INTENSE CHILL THAT PREVAILED DURING FEBRUARY...LAKE
SUPERIOR BECAME ALMOST 100 PERCENT ICE COVERED DURING THE LAST TWO
WEEKS OF FEBRUARY. THE NORTHERN BAY OF GREEN BAY WAS ALSO COMPLETELY
ICE COVERED. MUCH OF NORTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN WAS COVERED BY ICE AS
WELL EXCEPT FOR A NARROW CORRIDOR TO THE EAST OF THE DOOR AND GARDEN
PENINSULAS.

OBTAIN GREAT LAKES WATER LEVEL DATA AS REPORTED BY THE U.S. ARMY
CORPS OF ENGINEERS AT

HTTP://WWW.LRE.USACE.ARMY.MIL/MISSIONS/GREATLAKESINFORMATION/
       GREATLAKESWATERLEVELS/CURRENTCONDITIONS.ASPX (ALL LOWER CASE).
---------------------------------------------------------------------
                       FEBRUARY CLIMATE HIGHLIGHTS

HIGHEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...32 AT MENOMINEE ON 2/24

LOWEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...-40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY
                               ON 2/19

HIGHEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...8.6 DEGREES AT COPPER HARBOR

LOWEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...-2.4 DEGREES AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY

HIGHEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...2.64 INCHES AT MUNISING

LOWEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...0.22 INCH AT MENOMINEE

HIGHEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...50.7 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY

LOWEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...3.5 INCHES AT MENOMINEE AND IRON MOUNTAIN

GREATEST SNOW DEPTH...48 INCHES NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY
                       ON 2/25 AND 2/26

LOWEST SNOW DEPTH...TRACE AT MENOMINEE ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/10

A PERSISTENT DEEP UPPER TROUGH OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH
AMERICA DOWNSTREAM OF A STRONG UPPER RIDGE ALONG THE WEST COAST WAS
THE DOMINANT WEATHER PATTERN DURING FEBRUARY 2015. THE NORTHWEST
FLOW BETWEEN THESE TWO FEATURES DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF ARCTIC
AIR INTO THE GREAT LAKES...RESULTING IN A TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY
AT MOST PLACES AND A RECORD LOW FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE AT SOME
LOCATIONS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN. AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURES
RANGING BETWEEN ABOUT -2 AND 9 DEGREES ARE 12 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
THE FEBRUARY NORM AND 5 TO 10 DEGREES UNDER THE MONTHLY AVERAGES
REPORTED IN JANUARY 2015.

THE COLD WAS PARTICULARLY BRUTAL DURING THE SECOND HALF OF FEBRUARY.
FROM 2/12 THROUGH 2/28...MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED NEARLY 20
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. READINGS ON THE COLDEST DAYS WERE UP TO 30
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. NUMEROUS DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM
TEMPERATURES WERE ESTABLISHED DURING THIS PERIOD. THE LOW
TEMPERATURE WAS BELOW ZERO AT MANY PLACES ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. IN
FACT DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH...THE MERCURY BOTTOMED OUT BELOW ZERO
ON MORE THAN HALF THE MORNINGS AT THE MAJORITY OF LOCATIONS...
SETTING A RECORD FOR THE MOST DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE
IN FEBRUARY. THIS INTENSE COLD RESULTED IN EXTENSIVE ICE DEVELOPMENT
ON LAKE SUPERIOR BY MID MONTH...WHICH TENDED TO ENHANCE THE COLD
FURTHER BY REDUCING MODERATION OFF THE LAKE. THE COLDEST DAYS ON
2/14... 2/15...2/18...2/19 AND 2/22 FEATURED SUB-ZERO MAXIMUMS AS
WELL AT SOME LOCATIONS. AT LEAST A FEW SPOTS SAW THE THERMOMETER DIP
TO -20 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/13...2/15...2/16...2/19...2/20...2/22...
2/23 AND ON EACH MORNING FROM 2/25 THROUGH 2/28. READINGS FELL TO
-30 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/15...2/19...2/20...2/23...2/26 AND 2/27.
MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY REPORTED THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE OBSERVED
IN FEBRUARY EARLY ON 2/19...A FRIGID -40. THE WARMEST PERIOD WAS
DURING THE SECOND WEEK OF FEBRUARY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED
NEAR NORMAL ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/11. BUT THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE IN
FEBRUARY OCCURRED DURING A BRIEF MODERATION ON 2/24...WHEN THE
MERCURY AT MENOMINEE PEAKED AT 32. NO OTHER LOCATIONS REPORTED ABOVE
FREEZING TEMPERATURES DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH.

SINCE THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT SUPPRESSED ANY MOISTURE-LADEN LOW
PRESSURE SYSTEMS TO THE SOUTH...AREAS AWAY FROM LAKE SUPERIOR AND
THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS THAT WERE COMMON DURING THE COLD AIR OUTBREAKS
THAT OCCURRED IN THE WAKE OF THE NUMEROUS...DRY ALBERTA-CLIPPER-TYPE
LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS THAT PASSED NEARBY SAW VERY DRY WEATHER IN
FEBRUARY. MOST LOCATIONS NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER
TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE PICKED UP LESS THAN 0.50 INCH OR EVEN
0.25 INCH OF WATER EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION IN FEBRUARY...AS LITTLE
AS 25 PERCENT OF NORMAL. MONTHLY SNOWFALL IN THIS AREA WAS ONLY 3 TO
6 INCHES...NO MORE THAN 33 TO 50 PERCENT OF THE FEBRUARY AVERAGE.
CLOSER TO LAKE SUPERIOR...THE LAKE INFLUENCE LIFTED PRECIPITATION
AND SNOWFALL NEAR OR ABOVE NORMAL. AS MUCH AS 2.64 INCHES OF LIQUID
EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION AND 46.5 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...
ABOUT 130 AND 175 PERCENT OF THE TYPICAL FEBRUARY NUMBERS AT THAT
SITE. PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 50.7
INCHES OF FEBRUARY SNOWFALL. OVERALL...THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS TENDED
TO DIMINISH LATER IN THE MONTH DUE TO THE EXTENSIVE ICE COVER THAT
GREW ON LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE INTENSE COLD.

PERIODS OF MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS IN A COLD WEST TO NORTHWEST
FLOW OVER THE KEWEENAW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5 DROPPED UP TO A FOOT OF SNOW
AT SOME LOCATIONS...WITH CALUMET IN HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURING OVER
13 INCHES DURING THIS TIME.

A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN THE WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW
ALOFT ON THE SOUTHWEST FLANK OF THE DEEP TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA
CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...
MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF UPPER MICHIGAN. NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY MEASURED ALMOST 13 INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME.

TWO OF THE STRONGER DISTURBANCES TO IMPACT THE U.P. IN FEBRUARY
OCCURRED NEAR MID MONTH. THE FIRST OF THESE DROPPED UP TO 10 INCHES
OF SNOW AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY ON 2/11 AND 2/12. GUSTY
NORTH WINDS UP TO 45 MPH ALSO CAUSED CONSIDERABLE BLOWING SNOW NEAR
LAKE SUPERIOR AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN EXPOSED LOCATIONS THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND MUNISING.

THE SECOND DISTURBANCE BROUGHT MORE MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS...GUSTY NORTH WINDS TO 50 MPH AND EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ON
2/14. NUMEROUS ROADS ACROSS CENTRAL UPPER MICHIGAN WERE FORCED TO
CLOSE DURING THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD. AS MUCH AS 10 INCHES OF
SNOW FELL FROM 2/13 INTO EARLY 2/15 IN THE FAVORED SNOW BELTS IN
MARQUETTE AND ALGER COUNTIES. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -30 DURING
THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. THE NEXT IN THE
LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS NORTHERN ONTARIO ON
2/23 INTO 2/24. AS MUCH AS 7 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...AND
NORTH WINDS GUSTING UP TO 40 TO 45 MPH IN THE WAKE OF AN ARCTIC COLD
FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED ANOTHER ROUND OF NEAR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT
EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/24.

                ...FEBRUARY 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
           ...TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MOST PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       5.0     19.3     -14.3     7.8 /1899/ RECORD COLDEST

NEWBERRY         4.6     18.7     -14.1     5.7 /1917/ RECORD COLDEST

MARQUETTE NWS    2.4     15.5     -13.1     5.6 /2014/ RECORD COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN    4.2     17.5     -13.3     4.1 /1904/    2ND COLDEST

IRONWOOD         2.5     14.9     -12.4    -0.3 /1936/    2ND COLDEST

MUNISING         5.9     19.4     -13.5     4.8 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

HOUGHTON         4.6     16.9     -12.3     1.7 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY   7.3     20.7     -13.4     1.8 /1875/    6TH COLDEST


          ...RECORD NUMBER OF SUB ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE DAYS
                  IN FEBRUARY 2015 AT SOME PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       21        5       +16      17 /1972&   RECORD NUMBER
                                                2014/

IRON MOUNTAIN    22        9       +13      21 /2014/   RECORD NUMBER

MARQUETTE NWS    21        9       +12      19 /1979/   RECORD NUMBER

IRONWOOD         20       11        +9      24 /1936/    2ND GREATEST

HOUGHTON         17        5       +12      23 /1917/    3RD GREATEST

NEWBERRY         17        6       +11      26 /1904/    3RD GREATEST

MUNISING         15        4       +11      20 /1917&    3RD GREATEST
                                                1936/

MARQUETTE CITY   15        3       +12      22 /1875/    7TH GREATEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
           ...WINTER DEC 2014-FEB 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
                   ...COLD DESPITE MILD DECEMBER...

              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD     2014-15 RANK

MARQUETTE NWS   11.6     15.9     -4.3     7.5 /2013-14/  6TH COLDEST

MANISTIQUE      15.1     20.1     -5.0    11.4 /2013-14/  8TH COLDEST

NEWBERRY        14.3     19.2     -4.9    10.1 /2013-14/ 11TH COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN   13.0     16.6     -3.6     7.2 /2013-14/ 13TH COLDEST

MUNISING        14.8     20.1     -5.3     9.1 /1919-20/ 14TH COLDEST

HOUGHTON        14.0     17.6     -3.6     8.8 /1917-18/ 18TH COLDEST

IRONWOOD        11.5     14.4     -2.9     5.1 /2013-14/ 18TH COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY  16.8     21.0     -4.2    11.2 /1884-85/ 23RD COLDEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SOME OTHER TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION OBSERVATIONS ACROSS UPPER
MICHIGAN IN FEBRUARY 2015 INCLUDE:

IRONWOOD...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.5 (12.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.48 INCHES (0.21 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 33.3 INCHES (5.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

WATERSMEET (GOGEBIC COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.63 INCH
                              SNOWFALL 12.0 INCHES

GREENLAND (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.18 INCHES
                               SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

BERGLAND DAM (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.8 DEGREE
                                  SNOWFALL 30.6 INCHES

HOUGHTON COUNTY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (12.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
 AIRPORT          PRECIPITATION 1.44 INCHES (0.07 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
                  SNOWFALL 41.8 INCHES (10.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

ATLANTIC MINE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.52 INCHES
                                  SNOWFALL 46.0 INCHES

PAINESDALE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 50.7 INCHES

COPPER HARBOR...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.6 DEGREES
                PRECIPITATION 1.40 INCHES

JACOBSVILLE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.2 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 1.17 INCHES
                                SNOWFALL 17.7 INCHES

BARAGA...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 3.7 DEGREES
         PRECIPITATION 0.91 INCH
         SNOWFALL 17.9 INCHES

WATTON (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.8 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.01 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 12.8 INCHES

HERMAN (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.2 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.00 INCH
                         SNOWFALL 34.1 INCHES

CLARKSBURG (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.1 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.65 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 17.1 INCHES

BIG BAY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.0 DEGREES
                             PRECIPITATION 1.58 INCHES
                             SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

MARQUETTE CITY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.3 (13.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                 PRECIPITATION 1.28 INCHES (0.03INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                 SNOWFALL 22.6 INCHES (1.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

HARVEY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.0 DEGREES
                            PRECIPITATION 1.12 INCHES
                            SNOWFALL 23.1 INCHES

CHATHAM (ALGER COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.7 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.45 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 33.8 INCHES

MUNISING...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.9 (13.5 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 2.64 INCHES (0.63 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 46.5 INCHES (20.0 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

NEWBERRY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (14.1 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.77 INCHES (0.09 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 30.8 INCHES (7.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

STAMBAUGH (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -2.4 DEGREES
                          PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                          SNOWFALL 4.8 INCHES

AMASA (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.5 DEGREE
                      PRECIPITATION 0.55 INCH
                      SNOWFALL 11.6 INCHES

IRON MOUNTAIN...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.2 (13.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                PRECIPITATION 0.28 INCH (0.72 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES (5.2 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

NORWAY (DICKINSON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                            SNOWFALL 5.7 INCHES

MENOMINEE...PRECIPITATION 0.22 INCH
            SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES

GLADSTONE (DELTA COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.77 INCH
                           SNOWFALL 10.5 INCHES

GARDEN CORNERS (DELTA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.7 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.74 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 14.9 INCHES

COOKS (SCHOOLCRAFT COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 17.5 INCHES

MANISTIQUE...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.0 (14.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
             PRECIPITATION 0.56 INCH (0.58 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
             SNOWFALL 12.1 INCHES (2.5 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

                        FEBRUARY WEATHER SUMMARY

A WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW AROUND A DEEP UPPER TROUGH CENTERED NEAR
HUDSON BAY DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF COLD CANADIAN AIR INTO THE
UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/5. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS CHILLY PERIOD RAN BETWEEN 5 AND AS MUCH AS 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL. THE COLDEST NIGHT WAS ON 2/4-2/5...WHEN A HIGH PRESSURE
CENTER SHIFTING OVER IOWA EXTENDED INTO SOUTH CENTRAL UPPER
MICHIGAN. UNDER A MOSTLY CLEAR SKY...THE MERCURY TUMBLED BELOW ZERO
AWAY FROM THE MODERATING INFLUENCE OF LAKE SUPERIOR AND ALL THE WAY
TO -32 AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY. THE COLD AIR FLOW OVER
RELATIVELY WARM LAKE SUPERIOR RESULTED IN SOME SNOW SHOWERS IN THE
FAVORED SNOW BELTS...MAINLY ON 2/2 INTO 2/5. THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS
WERE HEAVIEST OVER THE KEWEENAW...WHERE SNOW TOTALS AT SOME
LOCATIONS REACHED NEAR A FOOT DURING THIS STRETCH. CALUMET IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURED 13 INCHES OF SNOW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5.

GUSTY SOUTHWEST WINDS UP TO 35 TO 40 MPH ON THE NORTHWEST FLANK OF
THE RETREATING HIGH PRESSURE RIDGE IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/5 SIGNALED
THE WEAKENING OF THE UPPER TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA...ALLOWING A
MORE MODERATE WEST-TO-EAST FLOW TO DOMINATE DURING THE WEEK OF 2/6
INTO 2/11. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED WITHIN A FEW DEGREES OF
NORMAL ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN
THE MORE ZONAL FLOW ALOFT CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE
EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF THE
U.P. NEGAUNEE IN MARQUETTE COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 12.9
INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME. AHMEEK AND MOHAWK IN KEWEENAW
COUNTY MEASURED 8.4 AND 8.1 INCHES OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY...AND
NEWBERRY REPORTED 6.3 INCHES. THERE WAS ALSO SOME FREEZING DRIZZLE
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/7-2/8...MAINLY NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER.

A STRONG DISTURBANCE DROPPING SOUTHEAST THROUGH CENTRAL CANADA
CAUSED A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM TO MOVE FROM THE NORTHERN PLAINS AND
ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN DURING THE MORNING ON 2/11...BRINGING A
WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OF 1 TO 3 INCHES TO THE AREA. AFTER THE LOW
SHIFTED TO THE EAST LATER IN THE MORNING ON 2/11 AND STRONG NORTH
WINDS DREW MUCH COLDER AIR INTO THE UPPER LAKES...THE SNOW
TRANSITIONED TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS. NORTH WINDS GUSTING AS
HIGH AS 35 TO 45 MPH CAUSED EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ALONG WITH
BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF SOME ROADS...INCLUDING HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN
MARQUETTE AND MUNISING. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -25 IN THE EARLY
MORNING HOURS ON 2/12. BY THE TIME THE APPROACH OF HIGH PRESSURE
DIMINISHED THE SNOW SHOWERS LATER IN THE DAY ON 2/12...6 INCHES OR
MORE OF SNOW HAD ACCUMULATED AT MANY LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...
WITH NEARLY 10 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY. NO MORE THAN
AN INCH FELL FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE.

MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/12 AND 2/13 WITHIN THE ARCTIC AIRMASS
ASSOCIATED WITH THE CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE TRAILING THE DEPARTING
SURFACE LOW AVERAGED AROUND 20 DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. THE ARRIVAL OF
THIS RIDGE DURING THE NIGHT OF 2/12-2/13 ENDED THE LINGERING SNOW
SHOWERS AND BROUGHT ABOUT SOME CLEARING...SETTING THE STAGE FOR A
VERY COLD NIGHT. THE THERMOMETER READ LOWER THAN -20 DURING THE
EARLY MORNING ON 2/13 AT MANY PLACES...INCLUDING -27 AT STAMBAUGH.

THE NEXT CLIPPER DISTURBANCE THAT WAS EMBEDDED IN THE DEEP UPPER
TROUGH DIVED SOUTHEAST ACROSS ONTARIO ON 2/13...BRINGING A PERIOD OF
LIGHT SNOW TO THE UPPER GREAT LAKES. AS THE LOW SHIFTED FARTHER TO
THE EAST...ITS ATTENDANT COLD FRONT SWUNG ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/13-2/14 ACCOMPANIED BY MORE SNOW SHOWERS AND
INCREASING NORTH WINDS THAT GUSTED AS HIGH AS 45 TO 50 MPH NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR ON 2/14. THESE STRONG WINDS BLEW THE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS FARTHER INLAND THAN USUAL AND ALL THE WAY TO THE LAKE
MICHIGAN SHORE TO THE EAST OF ESCANABA. THE GUSTY WINDS ALSO CAUSED
EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN OPEN AREAS. A
NUMBER OF ROADS WERE CLOSED DUE TO THESE DANGEROUS CONDITIONS...
INCLUDING HIGHWAY US-2 FROM MANISTIQUE TO RAPID RIVER IN DELTA
COUNTY...MUCH OF U.S. 41 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND RAPID RIVER...
PORTIONS OF M-35 IN MARQUETTE COUNTY AND M-28 FROM MARQUETTE TO
MUNISING. AT SOME LOCATIONS...TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 NEVER ROSE ABOVE
ZERO. THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD EASED BY THE EARLY MORNING ON
2/15 WITH THE CLOSER APPROACH OF ARCTIC HIGH PRESSURE THAT CAUSED
THE WINDS AND SNOW SHOWERS TO SUBSIDE. BUT THE INFLUX OF BITTERLY
COLD ARCTIC AIR STILL CAUSED THE THERMOMETER TO FREE FALL TO -30 OR
LOWER AT SOME PLACES BY DAYBREAK ON 2/15. A LOCATION SOUTHWEST OF
BARAGA REPORTED A LOW OF -31. STONINGTON IN DELTA COUNTY AND
STAMBAUGH WERE CLOSE BEHIND WITH A -30 MINIMUM. EVEN WHERE THE
OBSERVED TEMPERATURES WERE NOT AS LOW...WIND CHILLS STILL PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AT MANY PLACES DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15. DESPITE A
RETURN OF SOME SUNSHINE IN THE AFTERNOON...THE MERCURY NEVER REACHED
ZERO AT NEWBERRY ON 2/15...TOPPING OUT AT ONLY -1. SNOW TOTALS FROM
2/13 INTO 2/15 REACHED 3 TO 8 INCHES AT MANY LOCATIONS...WITH AS
MUCH AS 10 INCHES IN THE NORTH WIND SNOW BELTS FROM NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY TO CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY. ONCE AGAIN...NO MORE
THAN AN INCH FELL NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON
MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 AND 2/15
WERE ABOUT 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

A SERIES OF RELATIVELY WEAK AND MOISTURE-STARVED ALBERTA CLIPPER-
TYPE DISTURBANCES MOVED WITHIN THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT AND ACROSS
THE UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/16 INTO 2/18...DROPPING ONLY LIGHT SNOW
OR FLURRIES. GROWING ICE COVER ON LAKE SUPERIOR TENDED TO LIMIT THE
LAKE EFFECT PRECIPITATION THAT FOLLOWED THESE DISTURBANCES...BUT A
LOCATION NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY IMPACTED BY SOME HEAVIER
SNOW SHOWERS DOWNWIND OF MORE OPEN WATER OVER THE DEEPER CENTRAL
PART OF THE LAKE STILL PICKED UP NEARLY 14 INCHES OF THE WHITE STUFF
ON 2/16 INTO 2/18. A LOCATION NEAR NEWBERRY REPORTED A LOW
TEMPERATURE OF -22 NEAR DAYBREAK ON 2/16. A PARTICULARLY COLD
AIRMASS SURGED INTO THE AREA ON 2/18 INTO 2/20 IN THE WAKE OF THE
LAST OF THESE WEAK LOWS. TEMPERATURES NEVER ROSE ABOVE ZERO ON BOTH
2/18 AND 2/19 AT A NUMBER OF PLACES...ESPECIALLY ON 2/19 WHEN SUB-
ZERO MAXIMUMS WERE THE RULE AT MOST SPOTS. THE THERMOMETER PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AGAIN AT THE COLDER SPOTS EARLY ON 2/19...INCLUDING THE
LOWEST MONTHLY READING OF -40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY. WIND
CHILLS IN THE -25 TO -35 RANGE WERE COMMON EVEN AWAY FROM THESE
COLDEST SPOTS. ANOTHER VERY COLD NIGHT FOLLOWED ON 2/19-2/20...WHEN
TEMPERATURES FELL OFF AS LOW AS -39 AT A COLD SPOT NOT FAR FROM
NEWBERRY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED 10 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL ON 2/16 AND 2/17 BUT THEN 25 TO AS MUCH AS 30 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL DURING THE PEAK OF THE COLD ON 2/18...2/19 AND 2/20.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. MOST PLACES
PICKED UP 1 TO 4 INCHES DURING THIS EVENT BEFORE THE WIDESPREAD SNOW
DIMINISHED TO SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS BY THE AFTERNOON ON 2/21.
ALTHOUGH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/21 MODERATED TO BETWEEN 10
AND 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL...THIS WARMING TREND WAS BRIEF. A
REINFORCING COLD FRONT SWUNG THROUGH THE UPPER LAKES DURING THE
NIGHT ON 2/21-2/22 ACCOMPANIED BY ONLY SOME SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS.
ANOTHER BITTERLY COLD AIRMASS INVADED THE AREA IN ITS WAKE...
DROPPING THE MERCURY TO AS LOW AS -25 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY AND STONINGTON BY DAYBREAK. READINGS ON 2/22 FAILED
TO RISE ABOVE ZERO AT A FEW PLACES DESPITE AT LEAST PARTIAL
SUNSHINE. THE OVERNIGHT ON 2/22-2/23 WAS ANOTHER RECORD COLD ONE AT
SOME LOCATIONS AS HIGH PRESSURE MOVED OVERHEAD AND WINDS TURNED
LIGHT. THE MERCURY DIPPED TO -30 OR LOWER AT MANY OF THE COLD SPOTS
AND ALL THE WAY TO -38 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION. MEAN DAILY
TEMPERATURES ON 2/22 AND 2/23 RAN 25 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

THE NEXT IN THE LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS
NORTHERN ONTARIO ON 2/23 INTO 2/24. WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OVERSPREAD
THE U.P. DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/23-2/24 AND ACCUMULATED 1 TO 3 INCHES
AT MOST PLACES BEFORE THE PASSAGE OF AN ARCTIC COLD FRONT CAUSED THE
SNOW TO DIMINISH TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS...THE COVERAGE OF WHICH
WERE LIMITED BY ICE ON LAKE SUPERIOR. THE SOUTHWEST FLOW AHEAD OF
THIS FRONT ALLOWED TEMPERATURES TO MODERATE...AT LEAST BRIEFLY...
WITH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/24 RISING TO 5 TO 10 DEGREES
BELOW NORMAL. IN FACT...THE MERCURY REACHED 32 AT MENOMINEE IN THE
AFTERNOON ON 2/24...THE ONLY PLACE AND TIME READINGS TOUCHED THE
FREEZING MARK IN FEBRUARY ACROSS THE UPPER PENINSULA. NORTH WINDS
GUSTING AS HIGH AS 40 TO 45 MPH BEHIND THE FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED
ANOTHER ROUND OF BLOWING SNOW...WITH LOCAL WHITEOUT CONDITIONS IN
THE AFTERNOON AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...ESPECIALLY
ACROSS WESTERN ALGER COUNTY. INCLUDING THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS...
MUNISING AND CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY REPORTED 7 INCHES AND 6 INCHES
OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY DURING THIS EVENT.

THE GUSTY NORTH WIND DREW MORE ARCTIC AIR BACK INTO THE GREAT LAKES
AHEAD OF THE NEXT CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM...CAUSING
TEMPERATURES TO PLUMMET UNDER -20 AT SOME OF THE COLDER LOCATIONS
OVER THE WEST AND AS LOW AS -27 AT AMASA IN IRON COUNTY BY DAYBREAK
ON 2/25. THIS COLD HIGH AND AIRMASS DOMINATED INTO 2/28...WHEN THE
ANTICYCLONE SHIFTED TOWARD THE MID ATLANTIC STATES AND A SOUTHWEST
FLOW AND THE STRENGTHENING LATE FEBRUARY SUNSHINE ALLOWED FOR AN
EASING OF THE COLD DURING THE AFTERNOON. THE LOWEST REPORTED
TEMPERATURE WAS -36 JUST SOUTHWEST OF BARAGA AT DAWN ON 2/26...-31
AT CLARKSBURG/ CHAMPION AND AT A SPOT JUST INLAND FROM MUNISING ON
2/27...AND -27 AT STAMBAUGH ON 2/28. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AROUND
20 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL ON 2/25 THROUGH 2/27 MODERATED TO AROUND 10
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE ON 2/28.

                           APRIL FORECAST

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING AN EQUAL CHANCE
OF AN ABOVE AND BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE BUT A GREATER
THAN CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL 2015.

                          APRIL CLIMATOLOGY

AS THE SUN CONTINUES ITS MARCH NORTHWARD DURING THE FOURTH MONTH OF
THE YEAR...DAYLIGHT AND AVERAGE TEMPERATURES INCREASE STEADILY. THE
DAILY POSSIBLE SUNSHINE INCREASES FROM 769 MINUTES ON 4/1 TO 860
MINUTES ON THE LAST DAY OF THE MONTH. ON 4/1...NORMAL MAXIMUM AND
MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT THE MARQUETTE NWS ARE 41 AND 21...BUT
REBOUND TO 55 AND 35 ON 4/30. MONTHLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
THROUGHOUT UPPER MICHIGAN ARE 12 TO 14 DEGREES HIGHER IN APRIL THAN
IN MARCH. THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES OFTEN KEEP
TEMPERATURES NEAR THE SHORE DURING THE DAY MUCH LOWER THAN FARTHER
INLAND.

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION IN APRIL IS GREATER THAN IN MARCH OVER MUCH OF
INTERIOR UPPER MICHIGAN...BUT GENERALLY LESS IN AREAS NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR AS THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS INCREASE LOW LEVEL STABILITY
AND REDUCE THE THREAT OF LAKE EFFECT SNOW AND CONVECTIVE SHOWERS.
SNOWFALL DURING WARM AND/OR DRY APRILS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN IS
OFTEN LESS THAN AN INCH.

SUMMER-LIKE WEATHER CAN OCCUR DURING APRIL. RECORD HIGH TEMPERATURES
NEAR THE END OF THE MONTH GO ABOVE 90 IN SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING
THE 94 AND 92 DEGREE READINGS OBSERVED AT IRON MOUNTAIN AND THE
MARQUETTE NWS ON 4/22/80. ALTHOUGH APRIL 1987 IS THE WARMEST ON
RECORD OR AT LEAST IN THE TOP FIVE WARMEST AT MANY PLACES...THE
SECOND HALF OF APRIL 1990 STANDS OUT AS A PERIOD OF UNPRECEDENTED
WARMTH. IN FACT...THE WEEK BETWEEN 4/22/90 AND 4/29/90 IS THE
WARMEST ON RECORD AT ALL REPORTING STATIONS. TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS WEEK AVERAGED AS HIGH AS 68 AT MUNISING AND THE MARQUETTE
NWS...67 AT ONTONAGON...65 AT IRON MOUNTAIN...IRONWOOD AND
MANISTIQUE...64 AT HOUGHTON AND 62 AT NEWBERRY. AT MANY OF THESE
SITES... THE HIGHEST APRIL TEMPERATURE ON RECORD OCCURRED DURING
THIS WEEK...INCLUDING 89 AT MUNISING (4/26/90) AND ONTONAGON
(4/25/90)...88 AT HOUGHTON (4/25/90)...84 AT MANISTIQUE (4/26/90)
AND 82 AT NEWBERRY (4/25/90). SEVEN OF THE 10 HIGHEST APRIL MAXIMUM
TEMPERATURES RECORDED AT MANISTIQUE OCCURRED BETWEEN 4/23/90 AND
4/29/90. ALL OF THESE TEMPERATURES WOULD BE CONSIDERED NORMAL OR
EVEN ABOVE NORMAL DURING MID SUMMER.

WHEN APRIL TEMPERATURES SOAR QUICKLY WITH LINGERING DEEP WINTER SNOW
COVER...SNOWMELT CAN CAUSE SERIOUS FLOODING...ESPECIALLY IF HEAVY
RAINS FALL AROUND THE TIME OF WARMUP. IN 2002...THE COMBINATION OF
DEEP EARLY APRIL SNOW COVER AND A FEW DAYS OF HEAVY RAIN BEFORE
TEMPERATURES WARMED AS HIGH AS 80 TO 85 CAUSED DISASTROUS MID-APRIL
FLOODING IN WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. THE FLOODING WAS SO BAD IN
GOGEBIC COUNTY THEN MICHIGAN GOVERNOR JOHN ENGLER DECLARED THAT
COUNTY A DISASTER AREA AND DISPATCHED MICHIGAN NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS
TO ASSIST WITH RECOVERY. ALTHOUGH SEVERE WEATHER IS UNCOMMON ACROSS
UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL...AN OUTBREAK OF EARLY SEASON SEVERE
THUNDERSTORMS ENDED THIS PREMATURE SUMMER WARMTH IN APRIL 2002.

ALTHOUGH AVERAGE TEMPERATURES CLIMB QUICKLY IN APRIL AND SUMMER-LIKE
HEAT SOMETIMES HERALDS THE COMING WARM SEASON...WINTER CAN RETURN
WITH A VENGEANCE EVEN AT MONTHS END. FOR STATIONS WITH A LONGER TERM
RECORD...APRIL 1907 STANDS OUT AS THE COLDEST ON RECORD AT IRONWOOD
AND HOUGHTON. AT HOUGHTON...THE MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE THAT MONTH
WAS A WINTER-LIKE 27.9 DEGREES. APRIL 1950 WAS THE COLDEST FOURTH
MONTH ON RECORD AT NEWBERRY...IRON MOUNTAIN AND MUNISING. MORE
RECENTLY...APRIL IN 2013 AND 2014 FEATURED PERIODS OF VERY COLD
WEATHER AND RANK AMONG THE TOP FIVE COLDEST AT SOME PLACES. RECORD
LOW TEMPERATURES IN APRIL ARE BELOW ZERO AT MOST LOCATIONS. THE
MERCURY FELL AS LOW AS -12 AT IRONWOOD ON 4/7/82. SUB-ZERO MINIMUMS
HAVE OCCURRED EVEN AFTER MID MONTH AT SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING -8
AT IRONWOOD ON 4/17/83 AND -7 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN MARQUETTE
COUNTY ON 4/16/2014.

RECORD HIGH APRIL SNOWFALL AT ALMOST ALL LOCATIONS EXCEPT THE
SOUTHERN TIER COUNTIES IS 20 INCHES OR MORE. A HISTORIC BLIZZARD
STRUCK THE NORTHERN COUNTIES OF UPPER MICHIGAN ON 4/3 INTO 4/8 IN
2007. THE COMBINATION OF LAKE ENHANCED SNOW AND NORTH WIND GUSTS AT
OR ABOVE 50 MPH CAUSED WIDESPREAD BLIZZARD CONDITIONS ON 4/4 AND 4/5
THAT YEAR NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR. BY THE TIME THE SNOW ENDED EARLY ON
4/8/2007...AS MUCH AS 59.0 INCHES HAD FALLEN AT PAINESDALE IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY. IN APRIL 2013...A PERSISTENT AND DEEP UPPER TROUGH
OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH AMERICA RESULTED IN STUBBORN CHILL
UNTIL THE LAST WEEK OF THE MONTH AND SEVERAL HEAVY SNOW FALLS THAT
PUSHED THE MONTHLY SNOWFALL TO RECORD LEVELS AT OR ABOVE 50 INCHES
AT SEVERAL LOCATIONS OVER WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. MOST LOCATIONS
ENDURED TOP TEN APRIL SNOWFALL IN 2013. APRIL 2014 ALSO FEATURED
SOME HEAVY SNOWFALL THAT PLACED THE MONTH IN THE LIST OF TOP FIVE
SNOWIEST APRILS ON RECORD AT SOME SPOTS.

               OUTLOOK FOR LATE SPRING INTO SUMMER

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING A GREATER THAN
CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF AN ABOVE NORMAL 3-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE
AND BELOW NORMAL 3-MONTH PRECIPITATION OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN
MAY THROUGH JULY 2015.

GO TO HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/CLIMATE/L3MTO.PHP TO ACCESS DETAILED
LOCAL THREE-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OUTLOOKS FOR A NUMBER OF SITES
IN UPPER MICHIGAN.

CHECK OUT HTTP://WWW.CPC.NCEP.NOAA.GOV FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT
THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER AND MORE LONG RANGE PREDICTIONS.

NOTE THAT STATISTICS FOR THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE IN
NEGAUNEE TOWNSHIP ARE BASED ON RECORDS WHICH BEGAN IN OCTOBER 1961.
THIRTY YEAR NORMALS USED ARE FOR THE PERIOD OF 1981 THROUGH 2010.
NOTE ALL TEMPERATURES ARE IN FAHRENHEIT AND PRECIPITATION IS IN
INCHES. ALL CLIMATE DATA LISTED IN THIS PRODUCT ARE UNOFFICIAL. FOR
OFFICIAL DATA...PLEASE REFER TO THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER.
ALSO NOTE THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE DATA FROM CHIPPEWA AND
MACKINAC COUNTIES.

NWS MARQUETTE WEB PAGE IS AT HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/MQT (ALL LOWER
CASE). CONTACT THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER AT (828) 271-4800
OR WWW.NCDC.NOAA.GOV.

$$

KC




000
CXUS53 KMQT 280351 AAD
CLMMQT

CLIMATE REPORT...FINAL
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MARQUETTE MI
1150 PM EDT FRI MAR 27 2015

...................................

...THE MARQUETTE MI CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR THE MONTH OF FEBRUARY 2015...

CLIMATE NORMAL PERIOD 1981 TO 2010
CLIMATE RECORD PERIOD 1961 TO 2015

WEATHER         OBSERVED          NORMAL  DEPART  LAST YEAR`S
                 VALUE   DATE(S)  VALUE   FROM    VALUE  DATE(S)
                                          NORMAL
................................................................
TEMPERATURE (F)
RECORD
 HIGH              61   02/17/1981
 LOW              -34   02/17/1979
HIGHEST            24   02/28        24       0       41  02/20
                        02/10                             02/19
LOWEST            -28   02/23         5     -33      -28  02/28
AVG. MAXIMUM     11.8              25.6   -13.8     16.3
AVG. MINIMUM     -6.9               5.3   -12.2     -5.1
MEAN              2.4              15.5   -13.1      5.6
DAYS MAX >= 90      0               0.0     0.0        0
DAYS MAX <= 32     28              20.6     7.4       26
DAYS MIN <= 32     28              27.6     0.4       28
DAYS MIN <= 0      22              10.2    11.8       20

PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
RECORD
 MAXIMUM         5.35   2002
 MINIMUM         0.48   1994
TOTALS           1.67              2.14   -0.47     1.34
DAILY AVG.       0.06              0.08   -0.02     0.05
DAYS >= .01        16              13.1     2.9       13
DAYS >= .10         7               5.5     1.5        6
DAYS >= .50         0               1.0    -1.0        0
DAYS >= 1.00        0               0.2    -0.2        0
GREATEST
 24 HR. TOTAL    0.40   02/14 TO 02/14

SNOWFALL (INCHES)
RECORDS
 TOTAL           91.9   2002
TOTALS           40.7              35.9     4.8     20.9
SINCE 7/1       154.0             152.4     1.6    129.5
SNOWDEPTH AVG.     31                24       7       31
DAYS >= 1.0        12               8.0     4.0        7
GREATEST
 SNOW DEPTH        37   02/09                         35  02/22
                                                          02/21
 24 HR TOTAL      9.6   02/08 TO 02/09

DEGREE_DAYS
HEATING TOTAL    1747              1387     360     1655
 SINCE 7/1       7311              6624     687     7322
COOLING TOTAL       0                 0       0        0
 SINCE 1/1          0                 0       0        0
.................................................................

WIND (MPH)
AVERAGE WIND SPEED              MM
HIGHEST WIND SPEED/DIRECTION    MM        DATE   MM
HIGHEST GUST SPEED/DIRECTION    40/360    DATE  02/14

SKY COVER
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (PERCENT)   MM
AVERAGE SKY COVER             MM
NUMBER OF DAYS FAIR          MM
NUMBER OF DAYS PC            MM
NUMBER OF DAYS CLOUDY        MM

AVERAGE RH (PERCENT)     MM

WEATHER CONDITIONS. NUMBER OF DAYS WITH
THUNDERSTORM              0     MIXED PRECIP               1
HEAVY RAIN                0     RAIN                       0
LIGHT RAIN                0     FREEZING RAIN              0
LT FREEZING RAIN          3     HAIL                       0
HEAVY SNOW                0     SNOW                       1
LIGHT SNOW               24     SLEET                      1
FOG                       0     FOG W/VIS <= 1/4 MILE      0
HAZE                      0

-  INDICATES NEGATIVE NUMBERS.
R  INDICATES RECORD WAS SET OR TIED.
MM INDICATES DATA IS MISSING.
T  INDICATES TRACE AMOUNT.

&&

...FEBRUARY 2015 MONTHLY CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR UPPER MICHIGAN...
/THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE CHIPPEWA AND MACKINAC COUNTIES/

...EXTREMELY COLD MAINLY BECAUSE OF SECOND HALF CHILL...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT NEWBERRY AND MANISTIQUE...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT THE MARQUETTE NWS...
...SECOND COLDEST FEBRUARY AT IRONWOOD AND IRON MOUNTAIN...
...THIRD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT HOUGHTON AND MUNISING...
...SIXTH COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MARQUETTE CITY...

...PRECIPITATION AND SNOWFALL NEAR TO ABOVE NORMAL NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR BUT BELOW NORMAL OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL...

FEBRUARY CLIMATE STATISTICS FOR THE MARQUETTE NWS IN NEGAUNEE
 TOWNSHIP

                                    NORMAL   DEPARTURE
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE          2.4     15.5  MINUS  -13.1
AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE    11.8     25.6  MINUS  -13.8
AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE     -6.9      5.3  MINUS  -12.2
HEATING DEGREE DAYS         1747     1387   PLUS    360
COOLING DEGREE DAYS            0        0             0
TOTAL PRECIPITATION         1.67     2.14  MINUS   0.47
TOTAL SNOWFALL              40.7     35.9   PLUS    4.8

HIGHEST TEMPERATURE:                    24 ON 2/10 AND 2/28
LOWEST TEMPERATURE:                    -28 ON 2/23
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY PRECIPITATION:  0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST 24 HOUR PRECIPITATION:       0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY SNOWFALL:        9.2 ON 2/8
GREATEST 24 HOUR SNOWFALL:             9.6 ON 2/8-2/9
PEAK WIND SPEED:     40 MPH FROM THE NORTH ON 2/14

DAILY RECORD SNOWFALL ON 2/8...9.2 /OLD RECORD 7.6..1992/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/14...6 /8...1963/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/15...5 /7...1991/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-25 /-21...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-4 /ZERO...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/20...-26 /-15...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/23...-28 /-15...1965/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/26...7 /8...1964&2014/
RECORD LOWEST FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE...2.4 /OLD RECORD 5.6...2014/
RECORD NUMBER OF FEBRUARY DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO MINIMUM
 TEMPERATURE...21 DAYS /OLD RECORD 19 DAYS...1979/
---------------------------------------------------------------------
GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS (FEET/METERS ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL)

                            LAKE SUPERIOR  LAKE MICHIGAN-HURON
02/01/15 DAILY MEAN         602.02/183.49     579.12/176.52
02/28/15 DAILY MEAN         601.81/183.43     579.04/176.49
AVG JAN 2015 DAILY MEAN     602.16/183.54     579.11/176.51
AVG FEB 2014 DAILY MEAN     601.19/183.24     577.27/175.95
LONG TERM FEB DAILY MEAN    601.25/183.26     578.35/176.28
MAXIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      602.46/183.63     581.07/177.11
                                (1986)           (1986)
MINIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      599.61/182.76     576.08/175.59
                                (1926)           (1964)

...GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS WELL ABOVE NORMAL AGAIN IN FEBRUARY...

ALTHOUGH GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS FELL SLOWLY IN FEBRUARY 2015 AS IS
NORMAL...THESE LEVELS REMAINED WELL ABOVE THE LONG-TERM AVERAGE. AT
THE END OF FEBRUARY...THE LEVEL OF LAKES MICHIGAN AND HURON WAS 8 TO
9 INCHES HIGHER THAN NORMAL AND OVER 21 INCHES HIGHER THAN ON 2/28
IN 2014. AS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR...THE 2/28 LEVEL OF THAT BODY OF WATER
WAS ALMOST 7 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL AND OVER 7 INCHES HIGHER THAN
OBSERVED ON 2/28 IN 2014.

DUE TO THE INTENSE CHILL THAT PREVAILED DURING FEBRUARY...LAKE
SUPERIOR BECAME ALMOST 100 PERCENT ICE COVERED DURING THE LAST TWO
WEEKS OF FEBRUARY. THE NORTHERN BAY OF GREEN BAY WAS ALSO COMPLETELY
ICE COVERED. MUCH OF NORTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN WAS COVERED BY ICE AS
WELL EXCEPT FOR A NARROW CORRIDOR TO THE EAST OF THE DOOR AND GARDEN
PENINSULAS.

OBTAIN GREAT LAKES WATER LEVEL DATA AS REPORTED BY THE U.S. ARMY
CORPS OF ENGINEERS AT

HTTP://WWW.LRE.USACE.ARMY.MIL/MISSIONS/GREATLAKESINFORMATION/
       GREATLAKESWATERLEVELS/CURRENTCONDITIONS.ASPX (ALL LOWER CASE).
---------------------------------------------------------------------
                       FEBRUARY CLIMATE HIGHLIGHTS

HIGHEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...32 AT MENOMINEE ON 2/24

LOWEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...-40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY
                               ON 2/19

HIGHEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...8.6 DEGREES AT COPPER HARBOR

LOWEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...-2.4 DEGREES AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY

HIGHEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...2.64 INCHES AT MUNISING

LOWEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...0.22 INCH AT MENOMINEE

HIGHEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...50.7 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY

LOWEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...3.5 INCHES AT MENOMINEE AND IRON MOUNTAIN

GREATEST SNOW DEPTH...48 INCHES NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY
                       ON 2/25 AND 2/26

LOWEST SNOW DEPTH...TRACE AT MENOMINEE ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/10

A PERSISTENT DEEP UPPER TROUGH OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH
AMERICA DOWNSTREAM OF A STRONG UPPER RIDGE ALONG THE WEST COAST WAS
THE DOMINANT WEATHER PATTERN DURING FEBRUARY 2015. THE NORTHWEST
FLOW BETWEEN THESE TWO FEATURES DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF ARCTIC
AIR INTO THE GREAT LAKES...RESULTING IN A TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY
AT MOST PLACES AND A RECORD LOW FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE AT SOME
LOCATIONS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN. AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURES
RANGING BETWEEN ABOUT -2 AND 9 DEGREES ARE 12 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
THE FEBRUARY NORM AND 5 TO 10 DEGREES UNDER THE MONTHLY AVERAGES
REPORTED IN JANUARY 2015.

THE COLD WAS PARTICULARLY BRUTAL DURING THE SECOND HALF OF FEBRUARY.
FROM 2/12 THROUGH 2/28...MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED NEARLY 20
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. READINGS ON THE COLDEST DAYS WERE UP TO 30
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. NUMEROUS DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM
TEMPERATURES WERE ESTABLISHED DURING THIS PERIOD. THE LOW
TEMPERATURE WAS BELOW ZERO AT MANY PLACES ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. IN
FACT DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH...THE MERCURY BOTTOMED OUT BELOW ZERO
ON MORE THAN HALF THE MORNINGS AT THE MAJORITY OF LOCATIONS...
SETTING A RECORD FOR THE MOST DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE
IN FEBRUARY. THIS INTENSE COLD RESULTED IN EXTENSIVE ICE DEVELOPMENT
ON LAKE SUPERIOR BY MID MONTH...WHICH TENDED TO ENHANCE THE COLD
FURTHER BY REDUCING MODERATION OFF THE LAKE. THE COLDEST DAYS ON
2/14... 2/15...2/18...2/19 AND 2/22 FEATURED SUB-ZERO MAXIMUMS AS
WELL AT SOME LOCATIONS. AT LEAST A FEW SPOTS SAW THE THERMOMETER DIP
TO -20 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/13...2/15...2/16...2/19...2/20...2/22...
2/23 AND ON EACH MORNING FROM 2/25 THROUGH 2/28. READINGS FELL TO
-30 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/15...2/19...2/20...2/23...2/26 AND 2/27.
MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY REPORTED THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE OBSERVED
IN FEBRUARY EARLY ON 2/19...A FRIGID -40. THE WARMEST PERIOD WAS
DURING THE SECOND WEEK OF FEBRUARY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED
NEAR NORMAL ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/11. BUT THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE IN
FEBRUARY OCCURRED DURING A BRIEF MODERATION ON 2/24...WHEN THE
MERCURY AT MENOMINEE PEAKED AT 32. NO OTHER LOCATIONS REPORTED ABOVE
FREEZING TEMPERATURES DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH.

SINCE THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT SUPPRESSED ANY MOISTURE-LADEN LOW
PRESSURE SYSTEMS TO THE SOUTH...AREAS AWAY FROM LAKE SUPERIOR AND
THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS THAT WERE COMMON DURING THE COLD AIR OUTBREAKS
THAT OCCURRED IN THE WAKE OF THE NUMEROUS...DRY ALBERTA-CLIPPER-TYPE
LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS THAT PASSED NEARBY SAW VERY DRY WEATHER IN
FEBRUARY. MOST LOCATIONS NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER
TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE PICKED UP LESS THAN 0.50 INCH OR EVEN
0.25 INCH OF WATER EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION IN FEBRUARY...AS LITTLE
AS 25 PERCENT OF NORMAL. MONTHLY SNOWFALL IN THIS AREA WAS ONLY 3 TO
6 INCHES...NO MORE THAN 33 TO 50 PERCENT OF THE FEBRUARY AVERAGE.
CLOSER TO LAKE SUPERIOR...THE LAKE INFLUENCE LIFTED PRECIPITATION
AND SNOWFALL NEAR OR ABOVE NORMAL. AS MUCH AS 2.64 INCHES OF LIQUID
EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION AND 46.5 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...
ABOUT 130 AND 175 PERCENT OF THE TYPICAL FEBRUARY NUMBERS AT THAT
SITE. PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 50.7
INCHES OF FEBRUARY SNOWFALL. OVERALL...THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS TENDED
TO DIMINISH LATER IN THE MONTH DUE TO THE EXTENSIVE ICE COVER THAT
GREW ON LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE INTENSE COLD.

PERIODS OF MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS IN A COLD WEST TO NORTHWEST
FLOW OVER THE KEWEENAW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5 DROPPED UP TO A FOOT OF SNOW
AT SOME LOCATIONS...WITH CALUMET IN HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURING OVER
13 INCHES DURING THIS TIME.

A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN THE WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW
ALOFT ON THE SOUTHWEST FLANK OF THE DEEP TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA
CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...
MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF UPPER MICHIGAN. NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY MEASURED ALMOST 13 INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME.

TWO OF THE STRONGER DISTURBANCES TO IMPACT THE U.P. IN FEBRUARY
OCCURRED NEAR MID MONTH. THE FIRST OF THESE DROPPED UP TO 10 INCHES
OF SNOW AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY ON 2/11 AND 2/12. GUSTY
NORTH WINDS UP TO 45 MPH ALSO CAUSED CONSIDERABLE BLOWING SNOW NEAR
LAKE SUPERIOR AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN EXPOSED LOCATIONS THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND MUNISING.

THE SECOND DISTURBANCE BROUGHT MORE MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS...GUSTY NORTH WINDS TO 50 MPH AND EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ON
2/14. NUMEROUS ROADS ACROSS CENTRAL UPPER MICHIGAN WERE FORCED TO
CLOSE DURING THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD. AS MUCH AS 10 INCHES OF
SNOW FELL FROM 2/13 INTO EARLY 2/15 IN THE FAVORED SNOW BELTS IN
MARQUETTE AND ALGER COUNTIES. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -30 DURING
THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. THE NEXT IN THE
LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS NORTHERN ONTARIO ON
2/23 INTO 2/24. AS MUCH AS 7 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...AND
NORTH WINDS GUSTING UP TO 40 TO 45 MPH IN THE WAKE OF AN ARCTIC COLD
FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED ANOTHER ROUND OF NEAR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT
EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/24.

                ...FEBRUARY 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
           ...TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MOST PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       5.0     19.3     -14.3     7.8 /1899/ RECORD COLDEST

NEWBERRY         4.6     18.7     -14.1     5.7 /1917/ RECORD COLDEST

MARQUETTE NWS    2.4     15.5     -13.1     5.6 /2014/ RECORD COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN    4.2     17.5     -13.3     4.1 /1904/    2ND COLDEST

IRONWOOD         2.5     14.9     -12.4    -0.3 /1936/    2ND COLDEST

MUNISING         5.9     19.4     -13.5     4.8 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

HOUGHTON         4.6     16.9     -12.3     1.7 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY   7.3     20.7     -13.4     1.8 /1875/    6TH COLDEST


          ...RECORD NUMBER OF SUB ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE DAYS
                  IN FEBRUARY 2015 AT SOME PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       21        5       +16      17 /1972&   RECORD NUMBER
                                                2014/

IRON MOUNTAIN    22        9       +13      21 /2014/   RECORD NUMBER

MARQUETTE NWS    21        9       +12      19 /1979/   RECORD NUMBER

IRONWOOD         20       11        +9      24 /1936/    2ND GREATEST

HOUGHTON         17        5       +12      23 /1917/    3RD GREATEST

NEWBERRY         17        6       +11      26 /1904/    3RD GREATEST

MUNISING         15        4       +11      20 /1917&    3RD GREATEST
                                                1936/

MARQUETTE CITY   15        3       +12      22 /1875/    7TH GREATEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
           ...WINTER DEC 2014-FEB 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
                   ...COLD DESPITE MILD DECEMBER...

              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD     2014-15 RANK

MARQUETTE NWS   11.6     15.9     -4.3     7.5 /2013-14/  6TH COLDEST

MANISTIQUE      15.1     20.1     -5.0    11.4 /2013-14/  8TH COLDEST

NEWBERRY        14.3     19.2     -4.9    10.1 /2013-14/ 11TH COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN   13.0     16.6     -3.6     7.2 /2013-14/ 13TH COLDEST

MUNISING        14.8     20.1     -5.3     9.1 /1919-20/ 14TH COLDEST

HOUGHTON        14.0     17.6     -3.6     8.8 /1917-18/ 18TH COLDEST

IRONWOOD        11.5     14.4     -2.9     5.1 /2013-14/ 18TH COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY  16.8     21.0     -4.2    11.2 /1884-85/ 23RD COLDEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SOME OTHER TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION OBSERVATIONS ACROSS UPPER
MICHIGAN IN FEBRUARY 2015 INCLUDE:

IRONWOOD...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.5 (12.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.48 INCHES (0.21 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 33.3 INCHES (5.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

WATERSMEET (GOGEBIC COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.63 INCH
                              SNOWFALL 12.0 INCHES

GREENLAND (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.18 INCHES
                               SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

BERGLAND DAM (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.8 DEGREE
                                  SNOWFALL 30.6 INCHES

HOUGHTON COUNTY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (12.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
 AIRPORT          PRECIPITATION 1.44 INCHES (0.07 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
                  SNOWFALL 41.8 INCHES (10.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

ATLANTIC MINE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.52 INCHES
                                  SNOWFALL 46.0 INCHES

PAINESDALE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 50.7 INCHES

COPPER HARBOR...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.6 DEGREES
                PRECIPITATION 1.40 INCHES

JACOBSVILLE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.2 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 1.17 INCHES
                                SNOWFALL 17.7 INCHES

BARAGA...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 3.7 DEGREES
         PRECIPITATION 0.91 INCH
         SNOWFALL 17.9 INCHES

WATTON (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.8 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.01 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 12.8 INCHES

HERMAN (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.2 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.00 INCH
                         SNOWFALL 34.1 INCHES

CLARKSBURG (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.1 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.65 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 17.1 INCHES

BIG BAY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.0 DEGREES
                             PRECIPITATION 1.58 INCHES
                             SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

MARQUETTE CITY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.3 (13.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                 PRECIPITATION 1.28 INCHES (0.03INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                 SNOWFALL 22.6 INCHES (1.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

HARVEY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.0 DEGREES
                            PRECIPITATION 1.12 INCHES
                            SNOWFALL 23.1 INCHES

CHATHAM (ALGER COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.7 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.45 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 33.8 INCHES

MUNISING...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.9 (13.5 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 2.64 INCHES (0.63 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 46.5 INCHES (20.0 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

NEWBERRY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (14.1 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.77 INCHES (0.09 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 30.8 INCHES (7.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

STAMBAUGH (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -2.4 DEGREES
                          PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                          SNOWFALL 4.8 INCHES

AMASA (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.5 DEGREE
                      PRECIPITATION 0.55 INCH
                      SNOWFALL 11.6 INCHES

IRON MOUNTAIN...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.2 (13.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                PRECIPITATION 0.28 INCH (0.72 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES (5.2 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

NORWAY (DICKINSON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                            SNOWFALL 5.7 INCHES

MENOMINEE...PRECIPITATION 0.22 INCH
            SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES

GLADSTONE (DELTA COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.77 INCH
                           SNOWFALL 10.5 INCHES

GARDEN CORNERS (DELTA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.7 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.74 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 14.9 INCHES

COOKS (SCHOOLCRAFT COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 17.5 INCHES

MANISTIQUE...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.0 (14.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
             PRECIPITATION 0.56 INCH (0.58 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
             SNOWFALL 12.1 INCHES (2.5 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

                        FEBRUARY WEATHER SUMMARY

A WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW AROUND A DEEP UPPER TROUGH CENTERED NEAR
HUDSON BAY DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF COLD CANADIAN AIR INTO THE
UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/5. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS CHILLY PERIOD RAN BETWEEN 5 AND AS MUCH AS 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL. THE COLDEST NIGHT WAS ON 2/4-2/5...WHEN A HIGH PRESSURE
CENTER SHIFTING OVER IOWA EXTENDED INTO SOUTH CENTRAL UPPER
MICHIGAN. UNDER A MOSTLY CLEAR SKY...THE MERCURY TUMBLED BELOW ZERO
AWAY FROM THE MODERATING INFLUENCE OF LAKE SUPERIOR AND ALL THE WAY
TO -32 AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY. THE COLD AIR FLOW OVER
RELATIVELY WARM LAKE SUPERIOR RESULTED IN SOME SNOW SHOWERS IN THE
FAVORED SNOW BELTS...MAINLY ON 2/2 INTO 2/5. THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS
WERE HEAVIEST OVER THE KEWEENAW...WHERE SNOW TOTALS AT SOME
LOCATIONS REACHED NEAR A FOOT DURING THIS STRETCH. CALUMET IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURED 13 INCHES OF SNOW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5.

GUSTY SOUTHWEST WINDS UP TO 35 TO 40 MPH ON THE NORTHWEST FLANK OF
THE RETREATING HIGH PRESSURE RIDGE IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/5 SIGNALED
THE WEAKENING OF THE UPPER TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA...ALLOWING A
MORE MODERATE WEST-TO-EAST FLOW TO DOMINATE DURING THE WEEK OF 2/6
INTO 2/11. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED WITHIN A FEW DEGREES OF
NORMAL ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN
THE MORE ZONAL FLOW ALOFT CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE
EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF THE
U.P. NEGAUNEE IN MARQUETTE COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 12.9
INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME. AHMEEK AND MOHAWK IN KEWEENAW
COUNTY MEASURED 8.4 AND 8.1 INCHES OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY...AND
NEWBERRY REPORTED 6.3 INCHES. THERE WAS ALSO SOME FREEZING DRIZZLE
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/7-2/8...MAINLY NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER.

A STRONG DISTURBANCE DROPPING SOUTHEAST THROUGH CENTRAL CANADA
CAUSED A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM TO MOVE FROM THE NORTHERN PLAINS AND
ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN DURING THE MORNING ON 2/11...BRINGING A
WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OF 1 TO 3 INCHES TO THE AREA. AFTER THE LOW
SHIFTED TO THE EAST LATER IN THE MORNING ON 2/11 AND STRONG NORTH
WINDS DREW MUCH COLDER AIR INTO THE UPPER LAKES...THE SNOW
TRANSITIONED TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS. NORTH WINDS GUSTING AS
HIGH AS 35 TO 45 MPH CAUSED EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ALONG WITH
BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF SOME ROADS...INCLUDING HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN
MARQUETTE AND MUNISING. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -25 IN THE EARLY
MORNING HOURS ON 2/12. BY THE TIME THE APPROACH OF HIGH PRESSURE
DIMINISHED THE SNOW SHOWERS LATER IN THE DAY ON 2/12...6 INCHES OR
MORE OF SNOW HAD ACCUMULATED AT MANY LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...
WITH NEARLY 10 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY. NO MORE THAN
AN INCH FELL FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE.

MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/12 AND 2/13 WITHIN THE ARCTIC AIRMASS
ASSOCIATED WITH THE CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE TRAILING THE DEPARTING
SURFACE LOW AVERAGED AROUND 20 DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. THE ARRIVAL OF
THIS RIDGE DURING THE NIGHT OF 2/12-2/13 ENDED THE LINGERING SNOW
SHOWERS AND BROUGHT ABOUT SOME CLEARING...SETTING THE STAGE FOR A
VERY COLD NIGHT. THE THERMOMETER READ LOWER THAN -20 DURING THE
EARLY MORNING ON 2/13 AT MANY PLACES...INCLUDING -27 AT STAMBAUGH.

THE NEXT CLIPPER DISTURBANCE THAT WAS EMBEDDED IN THE DEEP UPPER
TROUGH DIVED SOUTHEAST ACROSS ONTARIO ON 2/13...BRINGING A PERIOD OF
LIGHT SNOW TO THE UPPER GREAT LAKES. AS THE LOW SHIFTED FARTHER TO
THE EAST...ITS ATTENDANT COLD FRONT SWUNG ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/13-2/14 ACCOMPANIED BY MORE SNOW SHOWERS AND
INCREASING NORTH WINDS THAT GUSTED AS HIGH AS 45 TO 50 MPH NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR ON 2/14. THESE STRONG WINDS BLEW THE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS FARTHER INLAND THAN USUAL AND ALL THE WAY TO THE LAKE
MICHIGAN SHORE TO THE EAST OF ESCANABA. THE GUSTY WINDS ALSO CAUSED
EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN OPEN AREAS. A
NUMBER OF ROADS WERE CLOSED DUE TO THESE DANGEROUS CONDITIONS...
INCLUDING HIGHWAY US-2 FROM MANISTIQUE TO RAPID RIVER IN DELTA
COUNTY...MUCH OF U.S. 41 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND RAPID RIVER...
PORTIONS OF M-35 IN MARQUETTE COUNTY AND M-28 FROM MARQUETTE TO
MUNISING. AT SOME LOCATIONS...TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 NEVER ROSE ABOVE
ZERO. THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD EASED BY THE EARLY MORNING ON
2/15 WITH THE CLOSER APPROACH OF ARCTIC HIGH PRESSURE THAT CAUSED
THE WINDS AND SNOW SHOWERS TO SUBSIDE. BUT THE INFLUX OF BITTERLY
COLD ARCTIC AIR STILL CAUSED THE THERMOMETER TO FREE FALL TO -30 OR
LOWER AT SOME PLACES BY DAYBREAK ON 2/15. A LOCATION SOUTHWEST OF
BARAGA REPORTED A LOW OF -31. STONINGTON IN DELTA COUNTY AND
STAMBAUGH WERE CLOSE BEHIND WITH A -30 MINIMUM. EVEN WHERE THE
OBSERVED TEMPERATURES WERE NOT AS LOW...WIND CHILLS STILL PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AT MANY PLACES DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15. DESPITE A
RETURN OF SOME SUNSHINE IN THE AFTERNOON...THE MERCURY NEVER REACHED
ZERO AT NEWBERRY ON 2/15...TOPPING OUT AT ONLY -1. SNOW TOTALS FROM
2/13 INTO 2/15 REACHED 3 TO 8 INCHES AT MANY LOCATIONS...WITH AS
MUCH AS 10 INCHES IN THE NORTH WIND SNOW BELTS FROM NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY TO CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY. ONCE AGAIN...NO MORE
THAN AN INCH FELL NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON
MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 AND 2/15
WERE ABOUT 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

A SERIES OF RELATIVELY WEAK AND MOISTURE-STARVED ALBERTA CLIPPER-
TYPE DISTURBANCES MOVED WITHIN THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT AND ACROSS
THE UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/16 INTO 2/18...DROPPING ONLY LIGHT SNOW
OR FLURRIES. GROWING ICE COVER ON LAKE SUPERIOR TENDED TO LIMIT THE
LAKE EFFECT PRECIPITATION THAT FOLLOWED THESE DISTURBANCES...BUT A
LOCATION NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY IMPACTED BY SOME HEAVIER
SNOW SHOWERS DOWNWIND OF MORE OPEN WATER OVER THE DEEPER CENTRAL
PART OF THE LAKE STILL PICKED UP NEARLY 14 INCHES OF THE WHITE STUFF
ON 2/16 INTO 2/18. A LOCATION NEAR NEWBERRY REPORTED A LOW
TEMPERATURE OF -22 NEAR DAYBREAK ON 2/16. A PARTICULARLY COLD
AIRMASS SURGED INTO THE AREA ON 2/18 INTO 2/20 IN THE WAKE OF THE
LAST OF THESE WEAK LOWS. TEMPERATURES NEVER ROSE ABOVE ZERO ON BOTH
2/18 AND 2/19 AT A NUMBER OF PLACES...ESPECIALLY ON 2/19 WHEN SUB-
ZERO MAXIMUMS WERE THE RULE AT MOST SPOTS. THE THERMOMETER PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AGAIN AT THE COLDER SPOTS EARLY ON 2/19...INCLUDING THE
LOWEST MONTHLY READING OF -40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY. WIND
CHILLS IN THE -25 TO -35 RANGE WERE COMMON EVEN AWAY FROM THESE
COLDEST SPOTS. ANOTHER VERY COLD NIGHT FOLLOWED ON 2/19-2/20...WHEN
TEMPERATURES FELL OFF AS LOW AS -39 AT A COLD SPOT NOT FAR FROM
NEWBERRY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED 10 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL ON 2/16 AND 2/17 BUT THEN 25 TO AS MUCH AS 30 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL DURING THE PEAK OF THE COLD ON 2/18...2/19 AND 2/20.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. MOST PLACES
PICKED UP 1 TO 4 INCHES DURING THIS EVENT BEFORE THE WIDESPREAD SNOW
DIMINISHED TO SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS BY THE AFTERNOON ON 2/21.
ALTHOUGH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/21 MODERATED TO BETWEEN 10
AND 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL...THIS WARMING TREND WAS BRIEF. A
REINFORCING COLD FRONT SWUNG THROUGH THE UPPER LAKES DURING THE
NIGHT ON 2/21-2/22 ACCOMPANIED BY ONLY SOME SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS.
ANOTHER BITTERLY COLD AIRMASS INVADED THE AREA IN ITS WAKE...
DROPPING THE MERCURY TO AS LOW AS -25 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY AND STONINGTON BY DAYBREAK. READINGS ON 2/22 FAILED
TO RISE ABOVE ZERO AT A FEW PLACES DESPITE AT LEAST PARTIAL
SUNSHINE. THE OVERNIGHT ON 2/22-2/23 WAS ANOTHER RECORD COLD ONE AT
SOME LOCATIONS AS HIGH PRESSURE MOVED OVERHEAD AND WINDS TURNED
LIGHT. THE MERCURY DIPPED TO -30 OR LOWER AT MANY OF THE COLD SPOTS
AND ALL THE WAY TO -38 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION. MEAN DAILY
TEMPERATURES ON 2/22 AND 2/23 RAN 25 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

THE NEXT IN THE LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS
NORTHERN ONTARIO ON 2/23 INTO 2/24. WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OVERSPREAD
THE U.P. DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/23-2/24 AND ACCUMULATED 1 TO 3 INCHES
AT MOST PLACES BEFORE THE PASSAGE OF AN ARCTIC COLD FRONT CAUSED THE
SNOW TO DIMINISH TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS...THE COVERAGE OF WHICH
WERE LIMITED BY ICE ON LAKE SUPERIOR. THE SOUTHWEST FLOW AHEAD OF
THIS FRONT ALLOWED TEMPERATURES TO MODERATE...AT LEAST BRIEFLY...
WITH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/24 RISING TO 5 TO 10 DEGREES
BELOW NORMAL. IN FACT...THE MERCURY REACHED 32 AT MENOMINEE IN THE
AFTERNOON ON 2/24...THE ONLY PLACE AND TIME READINGS TOUCHED THE
FREEZING MARK IN FEBRUARY ACROSS THE UPPER PENINSULA. NORTH WINDS
GUSTING AS HIGH AS 40 TO 45 MPH BEHIND THE FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED
ANOTHER ROUND OF BLOWING SNOW...WITH LOCAL WHITEOUT CONDITIONS IN
THE AFTERNOON AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...ESPECIALLY
ACROSS WESTERN ALGER COUNTY. INCLUDING THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS...
MUNISING AND CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY REPORTED 7 INCHES AND 6 INCHES
OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY DURING THIS EVENT.

THE GUSTY NORTH WIND DREW MORE ARCTIC AIR BACK INTO THE GREAT LAKES
AHEAD OF THE NEXT CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM...CAUSING
TEMPERATURES TO PLUMMET UNDER -20 AT SOME OF THE COLDER LOCATIONS
OVER THE WEST AND AS LOW AS -27 AT AMASA IN IRON COUNTY BY DAYBREAK
ON 2/25. THIS COLD HIGH AND AIRMASS DOMINATED INTO 2/28...WHEN THE
ANTICYCLONE SHIFTED TOWARD THE MID ATLANTIC STATES AND A SOUTHWEST
FLOW AND THE STRENGTHENING LATE FEBRUARY SUNSHINE ALLOWED FOR AN
EASING OF THE COLD DURING THE AFTERNOON. THE LOWEST REPORTED
TEMPERATURE WAS -36 JUST SOUTHWEST OF BARAGA AT DAWN ON 2/26...-31
AT CLARKSBURG/ CHAMPION AND AT A SPOT JUST INLAND FROM MUNISING ON
2/27...AND -27 AT STAMBAUGH ON 2/28. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AROUND
20 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL ON 2/25 THROUGH 2/27 MODERATED TO AROUND 10
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE ON 2/28.

                           APRIL FORECAST

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING AN EQUAL CHANCE
OF AN ABOVE AND BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE BUT A GREATER
THAN CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL 2015.

                          APRIL CLIMATOLOGY

AS THE SUN CONTINUES ITS MARCH NORTHWARD DURING THE FOURTH MONTH OF
THE YEAR...DAYLIGHT AND AVERAGE TEMPERATURES INCREASE STEADILY. THE
DAILY POSSIBLE SUNSHINE INCREASES FROM 769 MINUTES ON 4/1 TO 860
MINUTES ON THE LAST DAY OF THE MONTH. ON 4/1...NORMAL MAXIMUM AND
MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT THE MARQUETTE NWS ARE 41 AND 21...BUT
REBOUND TO 55 AND 35 ON 4/30. MONTHLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
THROUGHOUT UPPER MICHIGAN ARE 12 TO 14 DEGREES HIGHER IN APRIL THAN
IN MARCH. THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES OFTEN KEEP
TEMPERATURES NEAR THE SHORE DURING THE DAY MUCH LOWER THAN FARTHER
INLAND.

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION IN APRIL IS GREATER THAN IN MARCH OVER MUCH OF
INTERIOR UPPER MICHIGAN...BUT GENERALLY LESS IN AREAS NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR AS THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS INCREASE LOW LEVEL STABILITY
AND REDUCE THE THREAT OF LAKE EFFECT SNOW AND CONVECTIVE SHOWERS.
SNOWFALL DURING WARM AND/OR DRY APRILS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN IS
OFTEN LESS THAN AN INCH.

SUMMER-LIKE WEATHER CAN OCCUR DURING APRIL. RECORD HIGH TEMPERATURES
NEAR THE END OF THE MONTH GO ABOVE 90 IN SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING
THE 94 AND 92 DEGREE READINGS OBSERVED AT IRON MOUNTAIN AND THE
MARQUETTE NWS ON 4/22/80. ALTHOUGH APRIL 1987 IS THE WARMEST ON
RECORD OR AT LEAST IN THE TOP FIVE WARMEST AT MANY PLACES...THE
SECOND HALF OF APRIL 1990 STANDS OUT AS A PERIOD OF UNPRECEDENTED
WARMTH. IN FACT...THE WEEK BETWEEN 4/22/90 AND 4/29/90 IS THE
WARMEST ON RECORD AT ALL REPORTING STATIONS. TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS WEEK AVERAGED AS HIGH AS 68 AT MUNISING AND THE MARQUETTE
NWS...67 AT ONTONAGON...65 AT IRON MOUNTAIN...IRONWOOD AND
MANISTIQUE...64 AT HOUGHTON AND 62 AT NEWBERRY. AT MANY OF THESE
SITES... THE HIGHEST APRIL TEMPERATURE ON RECORD OCCURRED DURING
THIS WEEK...INCLUDING 89 AT MUNISING (4/26/90) AND ONTONAGON
(4/25/90)...88 AT HOUGHTON (4/25/90)...84 AT MANISTIQUE (4/26/90)
AND 82 AT NEWBERRY (4/25/90). SEVEN OF THE 10 HIGHEST APRIL MAXIMUM
TEMPERATURES RECORDED AT MANISTIQUE OCCURRED BETWEEN 4/23/90 AND
4/29/90. ALL OF THESE TEMPERATURES WOULD BE CONSIDERED NORMAL OR
EVEN ABOVE NORMAL DURING MID SUMMER.

WHEN APRIL TEMPERATURES SOAR QUICKLY WITH LINGERING DEEP WINTER SNOW
COVER...SNOWMELT CAN CAUSE SERIOUS FLOODING...ESPECIALLY IF HEAVY
RAINS FALL AROUND THE TIME OF WARMUP. IN 2002...THE COMBINATION OF
DEEP EARLY APRIL SNOW COVER AND A FEW DAYS OF HEAVY RAIN BEFORE
TEMPERATURES WARMED AS HIGH AS 80 TO 85 CAUSED DISASTROUS MID-APRIL
FLOODING IN WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. THE FLOODING WAS SO BAD IN
GOGEBIC COUNTY THEN MICHIGAN GOVERNOR JOHN ENGLER DECLARED THAT
COUNTY A DISASTER AREA AND DISPATCHED MICHIGAN NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS
TO ASSIST WITH RECOVERY. ALTHOUGH SEVERE WEATHER IS UNCOMMON ACROSS
UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL...AN OUTBREAK OF EARLY SEASON SEVERE
THUNDERSTORMS ENDED THIS PREMATURE SUMMER WARMTH IN APRIL 2002.

ALTHOUGH AVERAGE TEMPERATURES CLIMB QUICKLY IN APRIL AND SUMMER-LIKE
HEAT SOMETIMES HERALDS THE COMING WARM SEASON...WINTER CAN RETURN
WITH A VENGEANCE EVEN AT MONTHS END. FOR STATIONS WITH A LONGER TERM
RECORD...APRIL 1907 STANDS OUT AS THE COLDEST ON RECORD AT IRONWOOD
AND HOUGHTON. AT HOUGHTON...THE MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE THAT MONTH
WAS A WINTER-LIKE 27.9 DEGREES. APRIL 1950 WAS THE COLDEST FOURTH
MONTH ON RECORD AT NEWBERRY...IRON MOUNTAIN AND MUNISING. MORE
RECENTLY...APRIL IN 2013 AND 2014 FEATURED PERIODS OF VERY COLD
WEATHER AND RANK AMONG THE TOP FIVE COLDEST AT SOME PLACES. RECORD
LOW TEMPERATURES IN APRIL ARE BELOW ZERO AT MOST LOCATIONS. THE
MERCURY FELL AS LOW AS -12 AT IRONWOOD ON 4/7/82. SUB-ZERO MINIMUMS
HAVE OCCURRED EVEN AFTER MID MONTH AT SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING -8
AT IRONWOOD ON 4/17/83 AND -7 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN MARQUETTE
COUNTY ON 4/16/2014.

RECORD HIGH APRIL SNOWFALL AT ALMOST ALL LOCATIONS EXCEPT THE
SOUTHERN TIER COUNTIES IS 20 INCHES OR MORE. A HISTORIC BLIZZARD
STRUCK THE NORTHERN COUNTIES OF UPPER MICHIGAN ON 4/3 INTO 4/8 IN
2007. THE COMBINATION OF LAKE ENHANCED SNOW AND NORTH WIND GUSTS AT
OR ABOVE 50 MPH CAUSED WIDESPREAD BLIZZARD CONDITIONS ON 4/4 AND 4/5
THAT YEAR NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR. BY THE TIME THE SNOW ENDED EARLY ON
4/8/2007...AS MUCH AS 59.0 INCHES HAD FALLEN AT PAINESDALE IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY. IN APRIL 2013...A PERSISTENT AND DEEP UPPER TROUGH
OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH AMERICA RESULTED IN STUBBORN CHILL
UNTIL THE LAST WEEK OF THE MONTH AND SEVERAL HEAVY SNOW FALLS THAT
PUSHED THE MONTHLY SNOWFALL TO RECORD LEVELS AT OR ABOVE 50 INCHES
AT SEVERAL LOCATIONS OVER WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. MOST LOCATIONS
ENDURED TOP TEN APRIL SNOWFALL IN 2013. APRIL 2014 ALSO FEATURED
SOME HEAVY SNOWFALL THAT PLACED THE MONTH IN THE LIST OF TOP FIVE
SNOWIEST APRILS ON RECORD AT SOME SPOTS.

               OUTLOOK FOR LATE SPRING INTO SUMMER

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING A GREATER THAN
CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF AN ABOVE NORMAL 3-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE
AND BELOW NORMAL 3-MONTH PRECIPITATION OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN
MAY THROUGH JULY 2015.

GO TO HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/CLIMATE/L3MTO.PHP TO ACCESS DETAILED
LOCAL THREE-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OUTLOOKS FOR A NUMBER OF SITES
IN UPPER MICHIGAN.

CHECK OUT HTTP://WWW.CPC.NCEP.NOAA.GOV FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT
THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER AND MORE LONG RANGE PREDICTIONS.

NOTE THAT STATISTICS FOR THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE IN
NEGAUNEE TOWNSHIP ARE BASED ON RECORDS WHICH BEGAN IN OCTOBER 1961.
THIRTY YEAR NORMALS USED ARE FOR THE PERIOD OF 1981 THROUGH 2010.
NOTE ALL TEMPERATURES ARE IN FAHRENHEIT AND PRECIPITATION IS IN
INCHES. ALL CLIMATE DATA LISTED IN THIS PRODUCT ARE UNOFFICIAL. FOR
OFFICIAL DATA...PLEASE REFER TO THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER.
ALSO NOTE THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE DATA FROM CHIPPEWA AND
MACKINAC COUNTIES.

NWS MARQUETTE WEB PAGE IS AT HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/MQT (ALL LOWER
CASE). CONTACT THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER AT (828) 271-4800
OR WWW.NCDC.NOAA.GOV.

$$

KC





000
CXUS53 KMQT 280351 AAD
CLMMQT

CLIMATE REPORT...FINAL
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MARQUETTE MI
1150 PM EDT FRI MAR 27 2015

...................................

...THE MARQUETTE MI CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR THE MONTH OF FEBRUARY 2015...

CLIMATE NORMAL PERIOD 1981 TO 2010
CLIMATE RECORD PERIOD 1961 TO 2015

WEATHER         OBSERVED          NORMAL  DEPART  LAST YEAR`S
                 VALUE   DATE(S)  VALUE   FROM    VALUE  DATE(S)
                                          NORMAL
................................................................
TEMPERATURE (F)
RECORD
 HIGH              61   02/17/1981
 LOW              -34   02/17/1979
HIGHEST            24   02/28        24       0       41  02/20
                        02/10                             02/19
LOWEST            -28   02/23         5     -33      -28  02/28
AVG. MAXIMUM     11.8              25.6   -13.8     16.3
AVG. MINIMUM     -6.9               5.3   -12.2     -5.1
MEAN              2.4              15.5   -13.1      5.6
DAYS MAX >= 90      0               0.0     0.0        0
DAYS MAX <= 32     28              20.6     7.4       26
DAYS MIN <= 32     28              27.6     0.4       28
DAYS MIN <= 0      22              10.2    11.8       20

PRECIPITATION (INCHES)
RECORD
 MAXIMUM         5.35   2002
 MINIMUM         0.48   1994
TOTALS           1.67              2.14   -0.47     1.34
DAILY AVG.       0.06              0.08   -0.02     0.05
DAYS >= .01        16              13.1     2.9       13
DAYS >= .10         7               5.5     1.5        6
DAYS >= .50         0               1.0    -1.0        0
DAYS >= 1.00        0               0.2    -0.2        0
GREATEST
 24 HR. TOTAL    0.40   02/14 TO 02/14

SNOWFALL (INCHES)
RECORDS
 TOTAL           91.9   2002
TOTALS           40.7              35.9     4.8     20.9
SINCE 7/1       154.0             152.4     1.6    129.5
SNOWDEPTH AVG.     31                24       7       31
DAYS >= 1.0        12               8.0     4.0        7
GREATEST
 SNOW DEPTH        37   02/09                         35  02/22
                                                          02/21
 24 HR TOTAL      9.6   02/08 TO 02/09

DEGREE_DAYS
HEATING TOTAL    1747              1387     360     1655
 SINCE 7/1       7311              6624     687     7322
COOLING TOTAL       0                 0       0        0
 SINCE 1/1          0                 0       0        0
.................................................................

WIND (MPH)
AVERAGE WIND SPEED              MM
HIGHEST WIND SPEED/DIRECTION    MM        DATE   MM
HIGHEST GUST SPEED/DIRECTION    40/360    DATE  02/14

SKY COVER
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE (PERCENT)   MM
AVERAGE SKY COVER             MM
NUMBER OF DAYS FAIR          MM
NUMBER OF DAYS PC            MM
NUMBER OF DAYS CLOUDY        MM

AVERAGE RH (PERCENT)     MM

WEATHER CONDITIONS. NUMBER OF DAYS WITH
THUNDERSTORM              0     MIXED PRECIP               1
HEAVY RAIN                0     RAIN                       0
LIGHT RAIN                0     FREEZING RAIN              0
LT FREEZING RAIN          3     HAIL                       0
HEAVY SNOW                0     SNOW                       1
LIGHT SNOW               24     SLEET                      1
FOG                       0     FOG W/VIS <= 1/4 MILE      0
HAZE                      0

-  INDICATES NEGATIVE NUMBERS.
R  INDICATES RECORD WAS SET OR TIED.
MM INDICATES DATA IS MISSING.
T  INDICATES TRACE AMOUNT.

&&

...FEBRUARY 2015 MONTHLY CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR UPPER MICHIGAN...
/THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE CHIPPEWA AND MACKINAC COUNTIES/

...EXTREMELY COLD MAINLY BECAUSE OF SECOND HALF CHILL...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT NEWBERRY AND MANISTIQUE...
...RECORD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT THE MARQUETTE NWS...
...SECOND COLDEST FEBRUARY AT IRONWOOD AND IRON MOUNTAIN...
...THIRD COLDEST FEBRUARY AT HOUGHTON AND MUNISING...
...SIXTH COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MARQUETTE CITY...

...PRECIPITATION AND SNOWFALL NEAR TO ABOVE NORMAL NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR BUT BELOW NORMAL OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL...

FEBRUARY CLIMATE STATISTICS FOR THE MARQUETTE NWS IN NEGAUNEE
 TOWNSHIP

                                    NORMAL   DEPARTURE
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE          2.4     15.5  MINUS  -13.1
AVERAGE HIGH TEMPERATURE    11.8     25.6  MINUS  -13.8
AVERAGE LOW TEMPERATURE     -6.9      5.3  MINUS  -12.2
HEATING DEGREE DAYS         1747     1387   PLUS    360
COOLING DEGREE DAYS            0        0             0
TOTAL PRECIPITATION         1.67     2.14  MINUS   0.47
TOTAL SNOWFALL              40.7     35.9   PLUS    4.8

HIGHEST TEMPERATURE:                    24 ON 2/10 AND 2/28
LOWEST TEMPERATURE:                    -28 ON 2/23
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY PRECIPITATION:  0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST 24 HOUR PRECIPITATION:       0.40 ON 2/14
GREATEST CALENDAR DAY SNOWFALL:        9.2 ON 2/8
GREATEST 24 HOUR SNOWFALL:             9.6 ON 2/8-2/9
PEAK WIND SPEED:     40 MPH FROM THE NORTH ON 2/14

DAILY RECORD SNOWFALL ON 2/8...9.2 /OLD RECORD 7.6..1992/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/14...6 /8...1963/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/15...5 /7...1991/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-25 /-21...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/19...-4 /ZERO...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/20...-26 /-15...1966/
DAILY RECORD LOW MINIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/23...-28 /-15...1965/
DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE ON 2/26...7 /8...1964&2014/
RECORD LOWEST FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE...2.4 /OLD RECORD 5.6...2014/
RECORD NUMBER OF FEBRUARY DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO MINIMUM
 TEMPERATURE...21 DAYS /OLD RECORD 19 DAYS...1979/
---------------------------------------------------------------------
GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS (FEET/METERS ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL)

                            LAKE SUPERIOR  LAKE MICHIGAN-HURON
02/01/15 DAILY MEAN         602.02/183.49     579.12/176.52
02/28/15 DAILY MEAN         601.81/183.43     579.04/176.49
AVG JAN 2015 DAILY MEAN     602.16/183.54     579.11/176.51
AVG FEB 2014 DAILY MEAN     601.19/183.24     577.27/175.95
LONG TERM FEB DAILY MEAN    601.25/183.26     578.35/176.28
MAXIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      602.46/183.63     581.07/177.11
                                (1986)           (1986)
MINIMUM FEB DAILY MEAN      599.61/182.76     576.08/175.59
                                (1926)           (1964)

...GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS WELL ABOVE NORMAL AGAIN IN FEBRUARY...

ALTHOUGH GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS FELL SLOWLY IN FEBRUARY 2015 AS IS
NORMAL...THESE LEVELS REMAINED WELL ABOVE THE LONG-TERM AVERAGE. AT
THE END OF FEBRUARY...THE LEVEL OF LAKES MICHIGAN AND HURON WAS 8 TO
9 INCHES HIGHER THAN NORMAL AND OVER 21 INCHES HIGHER THAN ON 2/28
IN 2014. AS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR...THE 2/28 LEVEL OF THAT BODY OF WATER
WAS ALMOST 7 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL AND OVER 7 INCHES HIGHER THAN
OBSERVED ON 2/28 IN 2014.

DUE TO THE INTENSE CHILL THAT PREVAILED DURING FEBRUARY...LAKE
SUPERIOR BECAME ALMOST 100 PERCENT ICE COVERED DURING THE LAST TWO
WEEKS OF FEBRUARY. THE NORTHERN BAY OF GREEN BAY WAS ALSO COMPLETELY
ICE COVERED. MUCH OF NORTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN WAS COVERED BY ICE AS
WELL EXCEPT FOR A NARROW CORRIDOR TO THE EAST OF THE DOOR AND GARDEN
PENINSULAS.

OBTAIN GREAT LAKES WATER LEVEL DATA AS REPORTED BY THE U.S. ARMY
CORPS OF ENGINEERS AT

HTTP://WWW.LRE.USACE.ARMY.MIL/MISSIONS/GREATLAKESINFORMATION/
       GREATLAKESWATERLEVELS/CURRENTCONDITIONS.ASPX (ALL LOWER CASE).
---------------------------------------------------------------------
                       FEBRUARY CLIMATE HIGHLIGHTS

HIGHEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...32 AT MENOMINEE ON 2/24

LOWEST REPORTED TEMPERATURE...-40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY
                               ON 2/19

HIGHEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...8.6 DEGREES AT COPPER HARBOR

LOWEST AVERAGE TEMPERATURE...-2.4 DEGREES AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY

HIGHEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...2.64 INCHES AT MUNISING

LOWEST MONTHLY PRECIPITATION...0.22 INCH AT MENOMINEE

HIGHEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...50.7 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY

LOWEST MONTHLY SNOWFALL...3.5 INCHES AT MENOMINEE AND IRON MOUNTAIN

GREATEST SNOW DEPTH...48 INCHES NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY
                       ON 2/25 AND 2/26

LOWEST SNOW DEPTH...TRACE AT MENOMINEE ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/10

A PERSISTENT DEEP UPPER TROUGH OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH
AMERICA DOWNSTREAM OF A STRONG UPPER RIDGE ALONG THE WEST COAST WAS
THE DOMINANT WEATHER PATTERN DURING FEBRUARY 2015. THE NORTHWEST
FLOW BETWEEN THESE TWO FEATURES DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF ARCTIC
AIR INTO THE GREAT LAKES...RESULTING IN A TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY
AT MOST PLACES AND A RECORD LOW FEBRUARY MEAN TEMPERATURE AT SOME
LOCATIONS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN. AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURES
RANGING BETWEEN ABOUT -2 AND 9 DEGREES ARE 12 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
THE FEBRUARY NORM AND 5 TO 10 DEGREES UNDER THE MONTHLY AVERAGES
REPORTED IN JANUARY 2015.

THE COLD WAS PARTICULARLY BRUTAL DURING THE SECOND HALF OF FEBRUARY.
FROM 2/12 THROUGH 2/28...MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED NEARLY 20
DEGREES BELOW NORMAL. READINGS ON THE COLDEST DAYS WERE UP TO 30
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. NUMEROUS DAILY RECORD LOW MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM
TEMPERATURES WERE ESTABLISHED DURING THIS PERIOD. THE LOW
TEMPERATURE WAS BELOW ZERO AT MANY PLACES ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. IN
FACT DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH...THE MERCURY BOTTOMED OUT BELOW ZERO
ON MORE THAN HALF THE MORNINGS AT THE MAJORITY OF LOCATIONS...
SETTING A RECORD FOR THE MOST DAYS WITH A SUB-ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE
IN FEBRUARY. THIS INTENSE COLD RESULTED IN EXTENSIVE ICE DEVELOPMENT
ON LAKE SUPERIOR BY MID MONTH...WHICH TENDED TO ENHANCE THE COLD
FURTHER BY REDUCING MODERATION OFF THE LAKE. THE COLDEST DAYS ON
2/14... 2/15...2/18...2/19 AND 2/22 FEATURED SUB-ZERO MAXIMUMS AS
WELL AT SOME LOCATIONS. AT LEAST A FEW SPOTS SAW THE THERMOMETER DIP
TO -20 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/13...2/15...2/16...2/19...2/20...2/22...
2/23 AND ON EACH MORNING FROM 2/25 THROUGH 2/28. READINGS FELL TO
-30 OR LOWER ON 2/5...2/15...2/19...2/20...2/23...2/26 AND 2/27.
MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY REPORTED THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE OBSERVED
IN FEBRUARY EARLY ON 2/19...A FRIGID -40. THE WARMEST PERIOD WAS
DURING THE SECOND WEEK OF FEBRUARY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED
NEAR NORMAL ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/11. BUT THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE IN
FEBRUARY OCCURRED DURING A BRIEF MODERATION ON 2/24...WHEN THE
MERCURY AT MENOMINEE PEAKED AT 32. NO OTHER LOCATIONS REPORTED ABOVE
FREEZING TEMPERATURES DURING THE ENTIRE MONTH.

SINCE THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT SUPPRESSED ANY MOISTURE-LADEN LOW
PRESSURE SYSTEMS TO THE SOUTH...AREAS AWAY FROM LAKE SUPERIOR AND
THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS THAT WERE COMMON DURING THE COLD AIR OUTBREAKS
THAT OCCURRED IN THE WAKE OF THE NUMEROUS...DRY ALBERTA-CLIPPER-TYPE
LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS THAT PASSED NEARBY SAW VERY DRY WEATHER IN
FEBRUARY. MOST LOCATIONS NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER
TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE PICKED UP LESS THAN 0.50 INCH OR EVEN
0.25 INCH OF WATER EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION IN FEBRUARY...AS LITTLE
AS 25 PERCENT OF NORMAL. MONTHLY SNOWFALL IN THIS AREA WAS ONLY 3 TO
6 INCHES...NO MORE THAN 33 TO 50 PERCENT OF THE FEBRUARY AVERAGE.
CLOSER TO LAKE SUPERIOR...THE LAKE INFLUENCE LIFTED PRECIPITATION
AND SNOWFALL NEAR OR ABOVE NORMAL. AS MUCH AS 2.64 INCHES OF LIQUID
EQUIVALENT PRECIPITATION AND 46.5 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...
ABOUT 130 AND 175 PERCENT OF THE TYPICAL FEBRUARY NUMBERS AT THAT
SITE. PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 50.7
INCHES OF FEBRUARY SNOWFALL. OVERALL...THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS TENDED
TO DIMINISH LATER IN THE MONTH DUE TO THE EXTENSIVE ICE COVER THAT
GREW ON LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE INTENSE COLD.

PERIODS OF MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS IN A COLD WEST TO NORTHWEST
FLOW OVER THE KEWEENAW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5 DROPPED UP TO A FOOT OF SNOW
AT SOME LOCATIONS...WITH CALUMET IN HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURING OVER
13 INCHES DURING THIS TIME.

A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN THE WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW
ALOFT ON THE SOUTHWEST FLANK OF THE DEEP TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA
CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...
MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF UPPER MICHIGAN. NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY MEASURED ALMOST 13 INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME.

TWO OF THE STRONGER DISTURBANCES TO IMPACT THE U.P. IN FEBRUARY
OCCURRED NEAR MID MONTH. THE FIRST OF THESE DROPPED UP TO 10 INCHES
OF SNOW AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY ON 2/11 AND 2/12. GUSTY
NORTH WINDS UP TO 45 MPH ALSO CAUSED CONSIDERABLE BLOWING SNOW NEAR
LAKE SUPERIOR AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN EXPOSED LOCATIONS THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND MUNISING.

THE SECOND DISTURBANCE BROUGHT MORE MODERATE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS...GUSTY NORTH WINDS TO 50 MPH AND EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ON
2/14. NUMEROUS ROADS ACROSS CENTRAL UPPER MICHIGAN WERE FORCED TO
CLOSE DURING THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD. AS MUCH AS 10 INCHES OF
SNOW FELL FROM 2/13 INTO EARLY 2/15 IN THE FAVORED SNOW BELTS IN
MARQUETTE AND ALGER COUNTIES. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -30 DURING
THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. THE NEXT IN THE
LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS NORTHERN ONTARIO ON
2/23 INTO 2/24. AS MUCH AS 7 INCHES OF SNOW FELL AT MUNISING...AND
NORTH WINDS GUSTING UP TO 40 TO 45 MPH IN THE WAKE OF AN ARCTIC COLD
FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED ANOTHER ROUND OF NEAR BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT
EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/24.

                ...FEBRUARY 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
           ...TOP FIVE COLDEST FEBRUARY AT MOST PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       5.0     19.3     -14.3     7.8 /1899/ RECORD COLDEST

NEWBERRY         4.6     18.7     -14.1     5.7 /1917/ RECORD COLDEST

MARQUETTE NWS    2.4     15.5     -13.1     5.6 /2014/ RECORD COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN    4.2     17.5     -13.3     4.1 /1904/    2ND COLDEST

IRONWOOD         2.5     14.9     -12.4    -0.3 /1936/    2ND COLDEST

MUNISING         5.9     19.4     -13.5     4.8 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

HOUGHTON         4.6     16.9     -12.3     1.7 /1936/    3RD COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY   7.3     20.7     -13.4     1.8 /1875/    6TH COLDEST


          ...RECORD NUMBER OF SUB ZERO LOW TEMPERATURE DAYS
                  IN FEBRUARY 2015 AT SOME PLACES...

                                          /OR PREVIOUS/
              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD      2015 RANK

MANISTIQUE       21        5       +16      17 /1972&   RECORD NUMBER
                                                2014/

IRON MOUNTAIN    22        9       +13      21 /2014/   RECORD NUMBER

MARQUETTE NWS    21        9       +12      19 /1979/   RECORD NUMBER

IRONWOOD         20       11        +9      24 /1936/    2ND GREATEST

HOUGHTON         17        5       +12      23 /1917/    3RD GREATEST

NEWBERRY         17        6       +11      26 /1904/    3RD GREATEST

MUNISING         15        4       +11      20 /1917&    3RD GREATEST
                                                1936/

MARQUETTE CITY   15        3       +12      22 /1875/    7TH GREATEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
           ...WINTER DEC 2014-FEB 2015 MEAN TEMPERATURE...
                   ...COLD DESPITE MILD DECEMBER...

              OBSERVED  NORMAL  DEPARTURE     RECORD     2014-15 RANK

MARQUETTE NWS   11.6     15.9     -4.3     7.5 /2013-14/  6TH COLDEST

MANISTIQUE      15.1     20.1     -5.0    11.4 /2013-14/  8TH COLDEST

NEWBERRY        14.3     19.2     -4.9    10.1 /2013-14/ 11TH COLDEST

IRON MOUNTAIN   13.0     16.6     -3.6     7.2 /2013-14/ 13TH COLDEST

MUNISING        14.8     20.1     -5.3     9.1 /1919-20/ 14TH COLDEST

HOUGHTON        14.0     17.6     -3.6     8.8 /1917-18/ 18TH COLDEST

IRONWOOD        11.5     14.4     -2.9     5.1 /2013-14/ 18TH COLDEST

MARQUETTE CITY  16.8     21.0     -4.2    11.2 /1884-85/ 23RD COLDEST
---------------------------------------------------------------------
SOME OTHER TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION OBSERVATIONS ACROSS UPPER
MICHIGAN IN FEBRUARY 2015 INCLUDE:

IRONWOOD...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.5 (12.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.48 INCHES (0.21 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 33.3 INCHES (5.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

WATERSMEET (GOGEBIC COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.63 INCH
                              SNOWFALL 12.0 INCHES

GREENLAND (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.18 INCHES
                               SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

BERGLAND DAM (ONTONAGON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.8 DEGREE
                                  SNOWFALL 30.6 INCHES

HOUGHTON COUNTY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (12.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
 AIRPORT          PRECIPITATION 1.44 INCHES (0.07 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
                  SNOWFALL 41.8 INCHES (10.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

ATLANTIC MINE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 1.52 INCHES
                                  SNOWFALL 46.0 INCHES

PAINESDALE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 50.7 INCHES

COPPER HARBOR...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.6 DEGREES
                PRECIPITATION 1.40 INCHES

JACOBSVILLE (HOUGHTON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.2 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 1.17 INCHES
                                SNOWFALL 17.7 INCHES

BARAGA...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 3.7 DEGREES
         PRECIPITATION 0.91 INCH
         SNOWFALL 17.9 INCHES

WATTON (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.8 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.01 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 12.8 INCHES

HERMAN (BARAGA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.2 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.00 INCH
                         SNOWFALL 34.1 INCHES

CLARKSBURG (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -1.1 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.65 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 17.1 INCHES

BIG BAY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.0 DEGREES
                             PRECIPITATION 1.58 INCHES
                             SNOWFALL 29.5 INCHES

MARQUETTE CITY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 7.3 (13.4 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                 PRECIPITATION 1.28 INCHES (0.03INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                 SNOWFALL 22.6 INCHES (1.9 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

HARVEY (MARQUETTE COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 8.0 DEGREES
                            PRECIPITATION 1.12 INCHES
                            SNOWFALL 23.1 INCHES

CHATHAM (ALGER COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.7 DEGREES
                         PRECIPITATION 1.45 INCHES
                         SNOWFALL 33.8 INCHES

MUNISING...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.9 (13.5 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 2.64 INCHES (0.63 INCH ABOVE NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 46.5 INCHES (20.0 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

NEWBERRY...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.6 (14.1 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
           PRECIPITATION 1.77 INCHES (0.09 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
           SNOWFALL 30.8 INCHES (7.1 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL)

STAMBAUGH (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE -2.4 DEGREES
                          PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                          SNOWFALL 4.8 INCHES

AMASA (IRON COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 0.5 DEGREE
                      PRECIPITATION 0.55 INCH
                      SNOWFALL 11.6 INCHES

IRON MOUNTAIN...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 4.2 (13.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
                PRECIPITATION 0.28 INCH (0.72 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
                SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES (5.2 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

NORWAY (DICKINSON COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.29 INCH
                            SNOWFALL 5.7 INCHES

MENOMINEE...PRECIPITATION 0.22 INCH
            SNOWFALL 3.5 INCHES

GLADSTONE (DELTA COUNTY)...PRECIPITATION 0.77 INCH
                           SNOWFALL 10.5 INCHES

GARDEN CORNERS (DELTA COUNTY)...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 2.7 DEGREES
                                PRECIPITATION 0.74 INCH
                                SNOWFALL 14.9 INCHES

COOKS (SCHOOLCRAFT COUNTY)...SNOWFALL 17.5 INCHES

MANISTIQUE...AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 5.0 (14.3 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL)
             PRECIPITATION 0.56 INCH (0.58 INCH BELOW NORMAL)
             SNOWFALL 12.1 INCHES (2.5 INCHES BELOW NORMAL)

                        FEBRUARY WEATHER SUMMARY

A WEST TO NORTHWEST FLOW AROUND A DEEP UPPER TROUGH CENTERED NEAR
HUDSON BAY DELIVERED A STEADY STREAM OF COLD CANADIAN AIR INTO THE
UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/1 THROUGH 2/5. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS CHILLY PERIOD RAN BETWEEN 5 AND AS MUCH AS 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL. THE COLDEST NIGHT WAS ON 2/4-2/5...WHEN A HIGH PRESSURE
CENTER SHIFTING OVER IOWA EXTENDED INTO SOUTH CENTRAL UPPER
MICHIGAN. UNDER A MOSTLY CLEAR SKY...THE MERCURY TUMBLED BELOW ZERO
AWAY FROM THE MODERATING INFLUENCE OF LAKE SUPERIOR AND ALL THE WAY
TO -32 AT STAMBAUGH IN IRON COUNTY. THE COLD AIR FLOW OVER
RELATIVELY WARM LAKE SUPERIOR RESULTED IN SOME SNOW SHOWERS IN THE
FAVORED SNOW BELTS...MAINLY ON 2/2 INTO 2/5. THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS
WERE HEAVIEST OVER THE KEWEENAW...WHERE SNOW TOTALS AT SOME
LOCATIONS REACHED NEAR A FOOT DURING THIS STRETCH. CALUMET IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY MEASURED 13 INCHES OF SNOW ON 2/2 INTO 2/5.

GUSTY SOUTHWEST WINDS UP TO 35 TO 40 MPH ON THE NORTHWEST FLANK OF
THE RETREATING HIGH PRESSURE RIDGE IN THE AFTERNOON ON 2/5 SIGNALED
THE WEAKENING OF THE UPPER TROUGH IN EASTERN CANADA...ALLOWING A
MORE MODERATE WEST-TO-EAST FLOW TO DOMINATE DURING THE WEEK OF 2/6
INTO 2/11. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED WITHIN A FEW DEGREES OF
NORMAL ON EACH OF THESE DAYS. A SERIES OF DISTURBANCES EMBEDDED IN
THE MORE ZONAL FLOW ALOFT CAUSED PERIODS OF LIGHT SNOW FROM THE
EVENING ON 2/6 THROUGH 2/8...MAINLY OVER THE NORTHEAST HALF OF THE
U.P. NEGAUNEE IN MARQUETTE COUNTY LED REPORTING STATIONS WITH 12.9
INCHES OF SNOW DURING THIS TIME. AHMEEK AND MOHAWK IN KEWEENAW
COUNTY MEASURED 8.4 AND 8.1 INCHES OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY...AND
NEWBERRY REPORTED 6.3 INCHES. THERE WAS ALSO SOME FREEZING DRIZZLE
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/7-2/8...MAINLY NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER.

A STRONG DISTURBANCE DROPPING SOUTHEAST THROUGH CENTRAL CANADA
CAUSED A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM TO MOVE FROM THE NORTHERN PLAINS AND
ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN DURING THE MORNING ON 2/11...BRINGING A
WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OF 1 TO 3 INCHES TO THE AREA. AFTER THE LOW
SHIFTED TO THE EAST LATER IN THE MORNING ON 2/11 AND STRONG NORTH
WINDS DREW MUCH COLDER AIR INTO THE UPPER LAKES...THE SNOW
TRANSITIONED TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS. NORTH WINDS GUSTING AS
HIGH AS 35 TO 45 MPH CAUSED EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW ALONG WITH
BLIZZARD CONDITIONS AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR THAT
FORCED THE CLOSURE OF SOME ROADS...INCLUDING HIGHWAY M-28 BETWEEN
MARQUETTE AND MUNISING. WIND CHILLS FELL AS LOW AS -25 IN THE EARLY
MORNING HOURS ON 2/12. BY THE TIME THE APPROACH OF HIGH PRESSURE
DIMINISHED THE SNOW SHOWERS LATER IN THE DAY ON 2/12...6 INCHES OR
MORE OF SNOW HAD ACCUMULATED AT MANY LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...
WITH NEARLY 10 INCHES AT PAINESDALE IN HOUGHTON COUNTY. NO MORE THAN
AN INCH FELL FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE.

MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/12 AND 2/13 WITHIN THE ARCTIC AIRMASS
ASSOCIATED WITH THE CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE TRAILING THE DEPARTING
SURFACE LOW AVERAGED AROUND 20 DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE. THE ARRIVAL OF
THIS RIDGE DURING THE NIGHT OF 2/12-2/13 ENDED THE LINGERING SNOW
SHOWERS AND BROUGHT ABOUT SOME CLEARING...SETTING THE STAGE FOR A
VERY COLD NIGHT. THE THERMOMETER READ LOWER THAN -20 DURING THE
EARLY MORNING ON 2/13 AT MANY PLACES...INCLUDING -27 AT STAMBAUGH.

THE NEXT CLIPPER DISTURBANCE THAT WAS EMBEDDED IN THE DEEP UPPER
TROUGH DIVED SOUTHEAST ACROSS ONTARIO ON 2/13...BRINGING A PERIOD OF
LIGHT SNOW TO THE UPPER GREAT LAKES. AS THE LOW SHIFTED FARTHER TO
THE EAST...ITS ATTENDANT COLD FRONT SWUNG ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN
DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/13-2/14 ACCOMPANIED BY MORE SNOW SHOWERS AND
INCREASING NORTH WINDS THAT GUSTED AS HIGH AS 45 TO 50 MPH NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR ON 2/14. THESE STRONG WINDS BLEW THE LAKE EFFECT SNOW
SHOWERS FARTHER INLAND THAN USUAL AND ALL THE WAY TO THE LAKE
MICHIGAN SHORE TO THE EAST OF ESCANABA. THE GUSTY WINDS ALSO CAUSED
EXTENSIVE BLOWING SNOW AND BLIZZARD CONDITIONS IN OPEN AREAS. A
NUMBER OF ROADS WERE CLOSED DUE TO THESE DANGEROUS CONDITIONS...
INCLUDING HIGHWAY US-2 FROM MANISTIQUE TO RAPID RIVER IN DELTA
COUNTY...MUCH OF U.S. 41 BETWEEN MARQUETTE AND RAPID RIVER...
PORTIONS OF M-35 IN MARQUETTE COUNTY AND M-28 FROM MARQUETTE TO
MUNISING. AT SOME LOCATIONS...TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 NEVER ROSE ABOVE
ZERO. THIS VALENTINE`S DAY BLIZZARD EASED BY THE EARLY MORNING ON
2/15 WITH THE CLOSER APPROACH OF ARCTIC HIGH PRESSURE THAT CAUSED
THE WINDS AND SNOW SHOWERS TO SUBSIDE. BUT THE INFLUX OF BITTERLY
COLD ARCTIC AIR STILL CAUSED THE THERMOMETER TO FREE FALL TO -30 OR
LOWER AT SOME PLACES BY DAYBREAK ON 2/15. A LOCATION SOUTHWEST OF
BARAGA REPORTED A LOW OF -31. STONINGTON IN DELTA COUNTY AND
STAMBAUGH WERE CLOSE BEHIND WITH A -30 MINIMUM. EVEN WHERE THE
OBSERVED TEMPERATURES WERE NOT AS LOW...WIND CHILLS STILL PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AT MANY PLACES DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/14-2/15. DESPITE A
RETURN OF SOME SUNSHINE IN THE AFTERNOON...THE MERCURY NEVER REACHED
ZERO AT NEWBERRY ON 2/15...TOPPING OUT AT ONLY -1. SNOW TOTALS FROM
2/13 INTO 2/15 REACHED 3 TO 8 INCHES AT MANY LOCATIONS...WITH AS
MUCH AS 10 INCHES IN THE NORTH WIND SNOW BELTS FROM NEGAUNEE IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY TO CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY. ONCE AGAIN...NO MORE
THAN AN INCH FELL NEAR THE WISCONSIN BORDER FROM IRON RIVER TO IRON
MOUNTAIN AND MENOMINEE. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ON 2/14 AND 2/15
WERE ABOUT 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

A SERIES OF RELATIVELY WEAK AND MOISTURE-STARVED ALBERTA CLIPPER-
TYPE DISTURBANCES MOVED WITHIN THE NORTHWEST FLOW ALOFT AND ACROSS
THE UPPER GREAT LAKES ON 2/16 INTO 2/18...DROPPING ONLY LIGHT SNOW
OR FLURRIES. GROWING ICE COVER ON LAKE SUPERIOR TENDED TO LIMIT THE
LAKE EFFECT PRECIPITATION THAT FOLLOWED THESE DISTURBANCES...BUT A
LOCATION NEAR GRAND MARAIS IN ALGER COUNTY IMPACTED BY SOME HEAVIER
SNOW SHOWERS DOWNWIND OF MORE OPEN WATER OVER THE DEEPER CENTRAL
PART OF THE LAKE STILL PICKED UP NEARLY 14 INCHES OF THE WHITE STUFF
ON 2/16 INTO 2/18. A LOCATION NEAR NEWBERRY REPORTED A LOW
TEMPERATURE OF -22 NEAR DAYBREAK ON 2/16. A PARTICULARLY COLD
AIRMASS SURGED INTO THE AREA ON 2/18 INTO 2/20 IN THE WAKE OF THE
LAST OF THESE WEAK LOWS. TEMPERATURES NEVER ROSE ABOVE ZERO ON BOTH
2/18 AND 2/19 AT A NUMBER OF PLACES...ESPECIALLY ON 2/19 WHEN SUB-
ZERO MAXIMUMS WERE THE RULE AT MOST SPOTS. THE THERMOMETER PLUNGED
UNDER -30 AGAIN AT THE COLDER SPOTS EARLY ON 2/19...INCLUDING THE
LOWEST MONTHLY READING OF -40 AT MARENISCO IN GOGEBIC COUNTY. WIND
CHILLS IN THE -25 TO -35 RANGE WERE COMMON EVEN AWAY FROM THESE
COLDEST SPOTS. ANOTHER VERY COLD NIGHT FOLLOWED ON 2/19-2/20...WHEN
TEMPERATURES FELL OFF AS LOW AS -39 AT A COLD SPOT NOT FAR FROM
NEWBERRY. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AVERAGED 10 TO 15 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL ON 2/16 AND 2/17 BUT THEN 25 TO AS MUCH AS 30 DEGREES BELOW
NORMAL DURING THE PEAK OF THE COLD ON 2/18...2/19 AND 2/20.

ANOTHER LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM SLIDING FROM SOUTH CENTRAL CANADA ACROSS
LAKE SUPERIOR DROPPED OVER 7 INCHES OF SNOW AT IRONWOOD AND 6 INCHES
AT GARDEN CORNERS IN DELTA COUNTY ON 2/20 INTO 2/21. MOST PLACES
PICKED UP 1 TO 4 INCHES DURING THIS EVENT BEFORE THE WIDESPREAD SNOW
DIMINISHED TO SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS BY THE AFTERNOON ON 2/21.
ALTHOUGH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/21 MODERATED TO BETWEEN 10
AND 15 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL...THIS WARMING TREND WAS BRIEF. A
REINFORCING COLD FRONT SWUNG THROUGH THE UPPER LAKES DURING THE
NIGHT ON 2/21-2/22 ACCOMPANIED BY ONLY SOME SCATTERED SNOW SHOWERS.
ANOTHER BITTERLY COLD AIRMASS INVADED THE AREA IN ITS WAKE...
DROPPING THE MERCURY TO AS LOW AS -25 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN
MARQUETTE COUNTY AND STONINGTON BY DAYBREAK. READINGS ON 2/22 FAILED
TO RISE ABOVE ZERO AT A FEW PLACES DESPITE AT LEAST PARTIAL
SUNSHINE. THE OVERNIGHT ON 2/22-2/23 WAS ANOTHER RECORD COLD ONE AT
SOME LOCATIONS AS HIGH PRESSURE MOVED OVERHEAD AND WINDS TURNED
LIGHT. THE MERCURY DIPPED TO -30 OR LOWER AT MANY OF THE COLD SPOTS
AND ALL THE WAY TO -38 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION. MEAN DAILY
TEMPERATURES ON 2/22 AND 2/23 RAN 25 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL.

THE NEXT IN THE LINE OF ALBERTA-CLIPPER TYPE LOWS MOVED ACROSS
NORTHERN ONTARIO ON 2/23 INTO 2/24. WIDESPREAD LIGHT SNOW OVERSPREAD
THE U.P. DURING THE NIGHT ON 2/23-2/24 AND ACCUMULATED 1 TO 3 INCHES
AT MOST PLACES BEFORE THE PASSAGE OF AN ARCTIC COLD FRONT CAUSED THE
SNOW TO DIMINISH TO LAKE EFFECT SNOW SHOWERS...THE COVERAGE OF WHICH
WERE LIMITED BY ICE ON LAKE SUPERIOR. THE SOUTHWEST FLOW AHEAD OF
THIS FRONT ALLOWED TEMPERATURES TO MODERATE...AT LEAST BRIEFLY...
WITH THE MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE ON 2/24 RISING TO 5 TO 10 DEGREES
BELOW NORMAL. IN FACT...THE MERCURY REACHED 32 AT MENOMINEE IN THE
AFTERNOON ON 2/24...THE ONLY PLACE AND TIME READINGS TOUCHED THE
FREEZING MARK IN FEBRUARY ACROSS THE UPPER PENINSULA. NORTH WINDS
GUSTING AS HIGH AS 40 TO 45 MPH BEHIND THE FRONTAL PASSAGE CAUSED
ANOTHER ROUND OF BLOWING SNOW...WITH LOCAL WHITEOUT CONDITIONS IN
THE AFTERNOON AT EXPOSED LOCATIONS NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR...ESPECIALLY
ACROSS WESTERN ALGER COUNTY. INCLUDING THE LAKE EFFECT SNOWS...
MUNISING AND CHATHAM IN ALGER COUNTY REPORTED 7 INCHES AND 6 INCHES
OF SNOW RESPECTIVELY DURING THIS EVENT.

THE GUSTY NORTH WIND DREW MORE ARCTIC AIR BACK INTO THE GREAT LAKES
AHEAD OF THE NEXT CANADIAN HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM...CAUSING
TEMPERATURES TO PLUMMET UNDER -20 AT SOME OF THE COLDER LOCATIONS
OVER THE WEST AND AS LOW AS -27 AT AMASA IN IRON COUNTY BY DAYBREAK
ON 2/25. THIS COLD HIGH AND AIRMASS DOMINATED INTO 2/28...WHEN THE
ANTICYCLONE SHIFTED TOWARD THE MID ATLANTIC STATES AND A SOUTHWEST
FLOW AND THE STRENGTHENING LATE FEBRUARY SUNSHINE ALLOWED FOR AN
EASING OF THE COLD DURING THE AFTERNOON. THE LOWEST REPORTED
TEMPERATURE WAS -36 JUST SOUTHWEST OF BARAGA AT DAWN ON 2/26...-31
AT CLARKSBURG/ CHAMPION AND AT A SPOT JUST INLAND FROM MUNISING ON
2/27...AND -27 AT STAMBAUGH ON 2/28. MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES AROUND
20 DEGREES BELOW NORMAL ON 2/25 THROUGH 2/27 MODERATED TO AROUND 10
DEGREES BELOW AVERAGE ON 2/28.

                           APRIL FORECAST

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING AN EQUAL CHANCE
OF AN ABOVE AND BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE BUT A GREATER
THAN CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF BELOW NORMAL MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL 2015.

                          APRIL CLIMATOLOGY

AS THE SUN CONTINUES ITS MARCH NORTHWARD DURING THE FOURTH MONTH OF
THE YEAR...DAYLIGHT AND AVERAGE TEMPERATURES INCREASE STEADILY. THE
DAILY POSSIBLE SUNSHINE INCREASES FROM 769 MINUTES ON 4/1 TO 860
MINUTES ON THE LAST DAY OF THE MONTH. ON 4/1...NORMAL MAXIMUM AND
MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT THE MARQUETTE NWS ARE 41 AND 21...BUT
REBOUND TO 55 AND 35 ON 4/30. MONTHLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURES
THROUGHOUT UPPER MICHIGAN ARE 12 TO 14 DEGREES HIGHER IN APRIL THAN
IN MARCH. THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES OFTEN KEEP
TEMPERATURES NEAR THE SHORE DURING THE DAY MUCH LOWER THAN FARTHER
INLAND.

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION IN APRIL IS GREATER THAN IN MARCH OVER MUCH OF
INTERIOR UPPER MICHIGAN...BUT GENERALLY LESS IN AREAS NEAR LAKE
SUPERIOR AS THE RELATIVELY COOL WATERS INCREASE LOW LEVEL STABILITY
AND REDUCE THE THREAT OF LAKE EFFECT SNOW AND CONVECTIVE SHOWERS.
SNOWFALL DURING WARM AND/OR DRY APRILS ACROSS UPPER MICHIGAN IS
OFTEN LESS THAN AN INCH.

SUMMER-LIKE WEATHER CAN OCCUR DURING APRIL. RECORD HIGH TEMPERATURES
NEAR THE END OF THE MONTH GO ABOVE 90 IN SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING
THE 94 AND 92 DEGREE READINGS OBSERVED AT IRON MOUNTAIN AND THE
MARQUETTE NWS ON 4/22/80. ALTHOUGH APRIL 1987 IS THE WARMEST ON
RECORD OR AT LEAST IN THE TOP FIVE WARMEST AT MANY PLACES...THE
SECOND HALF OF APRIL 1990 STANDS OUT AS A PERIOD OF UNPRECEDENTED
WARMTH. IN FACT...THE WEEK BETWEEN 4/22/90 AND 4/29/90 IS THE
WARMEST ON RECORD AT ALL REPORTING STATIONS. TEMPERATURES DURING
THIS WEEK AVERAGED AS HIGH AS 68 AT MUNISING AND THE MARQUETTE
NWS...67 AT ONTONAGON...65 AT IRON MOUNTAIN...IRONWOOD AND
MANISTIQUE...64 AT HOUGHTON AND 62 AT NEWBERRY. AT MANY OF THESE
SITES... THE HIGHEST APRIL TEMPERATURE ON RECORD OCCURRED DURING
THIS WEEK...INCLUDING 89 AT MUNISING (4/26/90) AND ONTONAGON
(4/25/90)...88 AT HOUGHTON (4/25/90)...84 AT MANISTIQUE (4/26/90)
AND 82 AT NEWBERRY (4/25/90). SEVEN OF THE 10 HIGHEST APRIL MAXIMUM
TEMPERATURES RECORDED AT MANISTIQUE OCCURRED BETWEEN 4/23/90 AND
4/29/90. ALL OF THESE TEMPERATURES WOULD BE CONSIDERED NORMAL OR
EVEN ABOVE NORMAL DURING MID SUMMER.

WHEN APRIL TEMPERATURES SOAR QUICKLY WITH LINGERING DEEP WINTER SNOW
COVER...SNOWMELT CAN CAUSE SERIOUS FLOODING...ESPECIALLY IF HEAVY
RAINS FALL AROUND THE TIME OF WARMUP. IN 2002...THE COMBINATION OF
DEEP EARLY APRIL SNOW COVER AND A FEW DAYS OF HEAVY RAIN BEFORE
TEMPERATURES WARMED AS HIGH AS 80 TO 85 CAUSED DISASTROUS MID-APRIL
FLOODING IN WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. THE FLOODING WAS SO BAD IN
GOGEBIC COUNTY THEN MICHIGAN GOVERNOR JOHN ENGLER DECLARED THAT
COUNTY A DISASTER AREA AND DISPATCHED MICHIGAN NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS
TO ASSIST WITH RECOVERY. ALTHOUGH SEVERE WEATHER IS UNCOMMON ACROSS
UPPER MICHIGAN IN APRIL...AN OUTBREAK OF EARLY SEASON SEVERE
THUNDERSTORMS ENDED THIS PREMATURE SUMMER WARMTH IN APRIL 2002.

ALTHOUGH AVERAGE TEMPERATURES CLIMB QUICKLY IN APRIL AND SUMMER-LIKE
HEAT SOMETIMES HERALDS THE COMING WARM SEASON...WINTER CAN RETURN
WITH A VENGEANCE EVEN AT MONTHS END. FOR STATIONS WITH A LONGER TERM
RECORD...APRIL 1907 STANDS OUT AS THE COLDEST ON RECORD AT IRONWOOD
AND HOUGHTON. AT HOUGHTON...THE MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURE THAT MONTH
WAS A WINTER-LIKE 27.9 DEGREES. APRIL 1950 WAS THE COLDEST FOURTH
MONTH ON RECORD AT NEWBERRY...IRON MOUNTAIN AND MUNISING. MORE
RECENTLY...APRIL IN 2013 AND 2014 FEATURED PERIODS OF VERY COLD
WEATHER AND RANK AMONG THE TOP FIVE COLDEST AT SOME PLACES. RECORD
LOW TEMPERATURES IN APRIL ARE BELOW ZERO AT MOST LOCATIONS. THE
MERCURY FELL AS LOW AS -12 AT IRONWOOD ON 4/7/82. SUB-ZERO MINIMUMS
HAVE OCCURRED EVEN AFTER MID MONTH AT SOME LOCATIONS...INCLUDING -8
AT IRONWOOD ON 4/17/83 AND -7 AT CLARKSBURG/CHAMPION IN MARQUETTE
COUNTY ON 4/16/2014.

RECORD HIGH APRIL SNOWFALL AT ALMOST ALL LOCATIONS EXCEPT THE
SOUTHERN TIER COUNTIES IS 20 INCHES OR MORE. A HISTORIC BLIZZARD
STRUCK THE NORTHERN COUNTIES OF UPPER MICHIGAN ON 4/3 INTO 4/8 IN
2007. THE COMBINATION OF LAKE ENHANCED SNOW AND NORTH WIND GUSTS AT
OR ABOVE 50 MPH CAUSED WIDESPREAD BLIZZARD CONDITIONS ON 4/4 AND 4/5
THAT YEAR NEAR LAKE SUPERIOR. BY THE TIME THE SNOW ENDED EARLY ON
4/8/2007...AS MUCH AS 59.0 INCHES HAD FALLEN AT PAINESDALE IN
HOUGHTON COUNTY. IN APRIL 2013...A PERSISTENT AND DEEP UPPER TROUGH
OVER CENTRAL AND EASTERN NORTH AMERICA RESULTED IN STUBBORN CHILL
UNTIL THE LAST WEEK OF THE MONTH AND SEVERAL HEAVY SNOW FALLS THAT
PUSHED THE MONTHLY SNOWFALL TO RECORD LEVELS AT OR ABOVE 50 INCHES
AT SEVERAL LOCATIONS OVER WESTERN UPPER MICHIGAN. MOST LOCATIONS
ENDURED TOP TEN APRIL SNOWFALL IN 2013. APRIL 2014 ALSO FEATURED
SOME HEAVY SNOWFALL THAT PLACED THE MONTH IN THE LIST OF TOP FIVE
SNOWIEST APRILS ON RECORD AT SOME SPOTS.

               OUTLOOK FOR LATE SPRING INTO SUMMER

THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER (CPC) IS FORECASTING A GREATER THAN
CLIMATOLOGICAL CHANCE OF AN ABOVE NORMAL 3-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE
AND BELOW NORMAL 3-MONTH PRECIPITATION OVER ALL OF UPPER MICHIGAN IN
MAY THROUGH JULY 2015.

GO TO HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/CLIMATE/L3MTO.PHP TO ACCESS DETAILED
LOCAL THREE-MONTH AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OUTLOOKS FOR A NUMBER OF SITES
IN UPPER MICHIGAN.

CHECK OUT HTTP://WWW.CPC.NCEP.NOAA.GOV FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT
THE CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER AND MORE LONG RANGE PREDICTIONS.

NOTE THAT STATISTICS FOR THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE IN
NEGAUNEE TOWNSHIP ARE BASED ON RECORDS WHICH BEGAN IN OCTOBER 1961.
THIRTY YEAR NORMALS USED ARE FOR THE PERIOD OF 1981 THROUGH 2010.
NOTE ALL TEMPERATURES ARE IN FAHRENHEIT AND PRECIPITATION IS IN
INCHES. ALL CLIMATE DATA LISTED IN THIS PRODUCT ARE UNOFFICIAL. FOR
OFFICIAL DATA...PLEASE REFER TO THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER.
ALSO NOTE THIS DISCUSSION DOES NOT INCLUDE DATA FROM CHIPPEWA AND
MACKINAC COUNTIES.

NWS MARQUETTE WEB PAGE IS AT HTTP://WWW.WEATHER.GOV/MQT (ALL LOWER
CASE). CONTACT THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER AT (828) 271-4800
OR WWW.NCDC.NOAA.GOV.

$$

KC




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