National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                                                   NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
                                                   Silver Spring, Md. 20910                                                                                                             August 26, 1992                     W/OS0141:MB

MEMORANDUM FOR:         All Holders of Operations Manual

SUBJECT:                               Transmittal Memorandum For Operations Manual Issuance 92-4

1.    Material Transmitted:

WSOM Chapter B-30, Voluntary Observing Ship Program.

2.    Summary:

This chapter describes the operating procedures and administrative structure of the National Weather Service (NWS) Voluntary Observing Ship Program. This program is the primary means by which the NWS obtains surface observations from marine areas. Revisions to instructions and procedures are present throughout the chapter.

3.    Effect On Other Instructions:

Cancels WSOM Chapter B-30, issuances 77-8 and 78-14, dated June 23, 1977, and August 17, 1978, respectively.

Elbert W. Friday, Jr.
Assistant Administrator
    for Weather Services

Issue Date   Org. Code    NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE     Part   Chap.
8-26-92                                         Operations Manual


Table of Contents:

    1.    Purpose

    2.    General

    3.   Program Administration

        3.1    National Weather Service Headquarters (WSH)
        3.2    Regional Headquarters
        3.3    Marine Observations Program (MOP)
        3.4    Port Meteorological Office

    4.    Ship Selection and Recruitment

        4.1    Certificate of Membership in VOS Program
        4.2    Ship Classification
        4.2.1    Selected
        4.2.2    Supplementary
        4.2.3    Auxiliary
        4.2.4    Great Lakes
        4.2.5    Local Moving Ships

    5.    Ship Visitations

        5.1    Timing of Visitations
        5.2    Purpose of Visitations
        5.3    Visitation Routine
        5.3.1    Instructions on Observation Techniques
        5.3.2    Instrument Quality Checks
        5.3.3    Explanation of Use of NWS Forecast Services
        5.3.4    Radio Officer Contacts
        5.3.5    Visitation Services to Foreign Ships
        5.3.6    Visitation Services to U.S. Government and Private Research Ships

    6.    NWS Instruments Installed Aboard Ships

    7.    Observational Aids and Marine Publications Provided to Voluntary Observing Ships

    8.    Observation Procedures, Transmission, and Disposition of NWS Forms by Ships

        8.1    Observation Procedures Aboard Voluntary Observing Ships
        8.2    Radio Reports from Voluntary Observing Ships
        8.3    Disposition of Weather Records by Ships
        8.4    Disposition of Weather Transmission Forms (WS Form B-80) by Ships

    9.    PMO Liaison Activities

        9.1    Marine Weather Training by PMOs
        9.2    Merchant Marine Schools

    10.    Familiarization Trips
               10.1    Duties While on Familiarization Trips

    11.    Awards for Voluntary Observing Ships


    B-30-1    Membership Plaque for VOS Program

    B-30-2    Barometer Height Correction


A - Guide to Documentation of the Voluntary Observing Ship Program

1.    Purpose. This chapter outlines general policies and procedures for the operation and management of the Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) program. The VOS program is the National Weather Service's (NWS) primary source of marine weather data from coastal, offshore, and high seas areas, and from the Great Lakes.

2.    General. The NWS program for acquisition of oceanic surface weather reports is based upon national needs and international agreements, and is an integral part of the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) "World Weather Watch." Merchant ships that participate in the U.S.-managed portion of the VOS program are recruited by port meteorological officers (PMO), who spend the majority of their time visiting ships. NWS VOS program vessels are asked to take observations at standard synoptic times (0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 Universal Time Coordinated) while at sea. Additional reports are requested at 3 hourly intervals within 300 miles of named tropical storms or hurricanes and 200 miles of the U.S. and Canadian coasts. The collection of marine reports from the Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, western North Atlantic, and eastern North Pacific Oceans is a coordinated effort between the NWS, U.S. Coast Guard, and commercial shore radio stations. The International Maritime Satellites (INMARSAT) are playing a growing role in the data collection. Dissemination of marine reports on national and international communication circuits is controlled by the communications facility at the National Meteorological Center, Camp Springs, Maryland. Great Lakes marine observations are dis6eminated by the Weather Service Forecast Offices at Cleveland, Ohio, and Ann Arbor, Michigan.

3.    Program Administration. The NWS Headquarters sets policy and provides overall guidance for the VOS program. The various regional headquarters establish regional marine data requirements and provide administrative support and supervision of PMO activities.

3.1    National Weather Service Headquarters (WSH). The Office of Systems Operations (OSO), in coordination with the Office of Meteorology and regional headquarters, develops policy recommendations, funding plans, and operational instructions for maintenance of an effective VOS program. The Surface Observing Section (W/OSO141) operates and manages the overall Marine Observations Program. The Marine and Applied Services Branch (W/OM12) is responsible for maintaining high quality weather forecast and warning services for mariners. The International Telecommunications Section (W/OS0151) is responsible for the collection and dissemination of ship reports and NWS-generated service products. In addition, the Graphics and Display Section (W/OS0242) provides computerized monthly ship report statistics for effective management of the VOS program.

3.2    Regional Headquarters. Four regions (Eastern, Southern, Central, and Western) have full time PMOs. Two regions (Alaska and Pacific) have part time PMOs. When necessary, any regional headquarters may designate other personnel to visit ships. Policy and guidance set forth by W/OS0141 are coordinated with the regions and passed to PMOs through regional marine focal points and station meteorologists in charge, as appropriate. The regions provide general administrative support to the PMOs.

3.3    Marine Observations Program (MOP). The MOP in the OSO's Observing Systems Branch, W/OS0141, acts as the focal point for all PMO-related activities. The MOP will (1) maintain field records on all ships in the U.S.-managed VOS program, (2) prepare and distribute PMO weekly ship visitation activity reports, (3) supervise PMO accountable property responsibilities, (4) maintain VOS program observing handbooks, forms, and supplies, (5) manage the VOS program computer system, and (6) act to upgrade and improve the VOS program.

3.4    Port Meteorological Office. PMOs are located in major U.S. seaports. They are responsible for (1) recruiting ships, (2) training ships ' officers in weather observing procedures and practices, (3) checking and calibrating shipboard instrumentation, (4) maintaining the quality of ships' observations, and (5) organizing and maintaining liaison with maritime interests. The PMOs are under the direction of their respective regional support units, which act in cooperation with WSH. NWS offices without designated PMOs should offer marine meteorological support services to vessels upon request.

4.    Ship Selection and Recruitment. The vessels enrolled in the VOS program should allow for a broad distribution of observations over all oceanic regions. Priority is given to recruiting vessels which operate where the United States has forecast and warning responsibilities. Special emphasis should be placed on recruiting ships traversing data-sparse areas, off the main shipping routes. In any recruitment, the following points should be considered:

        a.    No ship should be recruited as U.S.-supervised if it is already in another nation's program. Ships of Japan, India, and other nations with active observing programs should be paid a courtesy visit and reminded of the U.S. high seas data requirements. Foreign flag vessels may be recruited into the U.S. VOS program if they are not participating in the programs of their own countries.

        b.    The ship recruited should be expected to call at a U.S. port accessible to a PMO at least every 6 months 50 that ob6erving equipment may be inspected and loaned equipment can be retrieved if the ship is decommissioned or transferred to another route.

        c.    In general, ships should not be recruited when there is little or no opportunity to meet the deck officers and discuss the quality and techniques of weather observing with them. Exceptions may be made where major U.S. shipping lines are concerned or when a visit to an interested vessel is not possible. In such cases, forms, observing instructions, and handbooks can be sent through the mail.

4.1    Certification of Membership in VOS Program. A plaque will be issued to each ship that becomes a participant in the NWS VOS program (see exhibit B-30-1). It should be presented in person by the responsible PMO. If possible, a photograph of the presentation should be obtained for inclusion in the Mariners Weather Log.

4.2    Ship Classification. Ships in the VOS program are classified in accordance with WMO International VOS definitions, i.e., SELECTED, SUPPLEMENTARY, OR AUXILIARY. A special classification for Great Lakes vessels is made to handle this special regional program. In addition, special classifications are used for other marine observing facilities not defined by the WMO program.

4.2.1    Selected. A selected class ship is equipped with an NWS or shipping company-owned barograph, barometer, and psychrometer, all of high quality and accuracy. The ship sails routes where it can b visited by a U.S. PMO at least every 6 months. This ship class is expected to take and routinely transmit weather messages in the FM13-IX synoptic code format while at sea.

4.2.2    Supplementary. A ship is classed as supplementary when it lacks a full complement of suitable observing equipment or it cannot be reached for routine visits. Supplementary ships also take observations in the FM13-IX synoptic code format.

4.2.3    Auxiliary. A high seas ship, with at least a barometer and a thermometer of acceptable accuracy, which does not desire or cannot report routinely is considered an auxiliary class vessel. Auxiliary ships also use the FM13-IX synoptic code format.

4.2.4    Great Lakes. This ship observing program consists of approximately 70 vessels, which started in 1991 to take and transmit sea level pressure readings. Great Lakes ships are also now using the same form as high seas vessels to report weather observations--WS Form B-81. A few Great Lakes ships without weather instrumentation send plain language reports using NOAA Form 72-5b, Marine Coastal Weather Log Ship Station. Two PMOs, located in Cleveland, Ohio, and Rosemont, Illinois, provide service to Great Lakes vessels.

4.2.5    Local Moving Ships. Vessels without a radio officer but possessing the capability of reporting via single side band  voice through the U.S. Coast Guard are considered local moving ships. They generally take observations using NOAA Form 72-5b, Marine Coastal Weather Log Ship Station, but can also make voice reports in code FM13-IX.

5.    Ship Visitations. This function requires the greatest amount of the PMO's time. Therefore, proper management of this activity is essential to the VOS. The PMOs must plan routine visits to (1) recruit new ships into the VOS program, (2) inspect meteorological equipment and provide observing instructions or hints to ships already in the VOS, (3) replace or make adjustments to previously installed NWS equipment, (4) instruct observers and provide necessary meteorological equipment to newly recruited ships, and (5) make courtesy calls on foreign supervised VOSs.

5.1    Timing of Visitations. Ship visits should be planned for times when the greatest number of the weather observing personnel can be reached to discuss observing procedures and the use of NWS products.

5.2    Purpose of Visitations. Ship visitations are made primarily to (1) expand the existing VOS program, (2) maintain the quality of the weather observation program aboard ships, (3) furnish observing and reporting instructions and supplies, and (4) inform ships' personnel about the availability and use of NWS broadcasts of forecasts and warnings.

5.3    Visitation Routine. The routine during a visit to a ship varies, but generally all visitations should begin with a call on the captain or the captain's designated representative to explain the purpose of the visit (follow-up, new recruitment, or courtesy) and to request permission to carry out all the PMO designated functions.

5.3.1    Instructions on Observation Techniques. The PMO should visit with as many shipboard observers as possible. During the first visit on a newly recruited ship, instructions from National Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Marine Surface Weather Observations, should be reviewed with the observers. If observation records are aboard ship, the PMO should examine them for coding and logging errors, or omissions, and make tactful suggestions for correcting problems.

5.3.2    Instrument Quality Checks. The PMO should check all the weather-observing equipment aboard ship during the visit. NWS VOS program ships have barometers corrected to read sea level pressure. To correct to sea level, the portable inspection barometer should be brought to the bridge and the bridge height determined. The height correction is found by multiplying the bridge height in feet by the correction factor, 0.037 milibars per foot (Exhibit B-30-2). The ship's barometer is then set to sea level pressure by adding the height correction to the inspection barometer reading. If the ship's barometer cannot be adjusted, a height correction (plus or minus) must be applied by the observer to achieve a sea level pressure reading. The correction should be entered on WS Form B-13, Barometer Correction Label, and posted on or near the barometer face. Several barometer comparisons should be made to figure the proper height correction. Some large vessels, such as bulk carriers, ride either fully loaded or empty without ballast. Two different corrections should be provided for these ships since large changes in draft can cause considerable pressure difference. To maintain accuracy, the ship inspection barometer should be checked each day by the PMO before and after ship visitations.
Alt. Alt.                 Alt.
Ft. in. mb. Ft. in. mb. Ft. in. mb.
1 0 .0 41 +.05 1.5 66 +.07 2.4
5 +.01 .2 42 +.05 1.6 67 .07 2.5
10 +.01 .4 43 +.05 1.6 68 .08 2.5
15 +.02 .6 44 +.05 1.6 69 .08 2.6
20 +.02 .7 45 .05 1.7 70 .08 2.6
21 +.02 .8 46 .05 1.7 71 .08 2.6
22 .02 .8 47 .05 1.7 72 .08 2.7
23 .03 .9 48 .05 1.8 73 +.08 2.7
24 .03 .9 49 .05 1.8 74 .08 2.7
25 .03 .9 50 .06 1.9 75 .08 2.8
26 .03 1.0 51 .06 1.9 76 .08 2.8
27 .03 1.0 52 .06 1.9 77 .09 2.9
28 .03 1.0 53 .06 2.0 78 .09 2.9
29 .03 1.1 54 .06 2.0 79 +.09 2.9
30 .03 1.1 55 .06 2.0 80 .09 3.0
31 .03 1.2 56 .06 2.1 81 .09 3.0
32 .04 1.2 57 .06 2.1 82 .09 3.0
33 .04 1.2 58 .06 2.2 83 .09 3.1
34 .04 1.3 59 .07 2.2 84 .09 3.1
35 .04 1.3 60 .07 2.2 85 .09 3.2
36 .04 1.3 61 .07 2.3 86 .10 3.2
37 .04 1.4 62 .07 2.3 87 .10 3.2
38 .04 1.4 63 .07 2.3 88 .10 3.3
39 .04 1.4 64 .07 2.4 89 .10 3.3
40 .04 1.5 65 .07 2.4 90 .10 3.3
Method of calculating the "HEIGHT CORRECTION" for any given height of barometer above ship's waterline:

Height of ship's barometer above ship's waterline ---

feet x 0.037 mb./ft                        =                  mb.
feet x 0.0011 in.(Hg)/ft                 =                  in. (Hg)

Exhibit B-30-2:    Barometer Height Correction

Barographs should be checked for normal operation and adjusted sea level pressure. Thermometers should be cleaned and columns inspected for separations. If necessary, the psychrometer muslin should be replaced. All defective NWS equipment should be replaced.

If the ship is equipped with an anemometer, the PMO should provide the ship with a wind plotting board and explain its use. PMO should evaluate the wind system exposure and discuss the qualities of the instrument with the deck officers. Officers; should be encouraged to have their anemometers checked by a qualified technician at least semiannually and calibrated if necessary.

5.3.3    Explanation of Use of NWS Forecast Services. Discussion of radio facsimile broadcast schedules and products, as well as radio broadcasts of forecasts, synopses, warnings, and analyses, should be brought to the attention of the ship's officers. If necessary, shipboard personnel should be provided instructions on the interpretation and use of these NWS forecast products.

5.3.4    Radio Officer Contacts. The PMO should contact the radio officer of each ship visited. Any difficulties the radio officer has had when forwarding or receiving weather information should be noted and forwarded to the MOP in OSO's Observing Systems Branch (W/OS014), for necessary action. The PMO should stress the NWS need for timely delivery of weather reports.

5.3.5    Visitation Services to Foreign Ships. Ships recruited by foreign meteorological services or foreign ships not participating in any observing program should be visited by PMOs when time permits and visits can be arranged. The activities of the PMO on visits to such ships should be the same as they are when vessels in the U.S. VOS program are visited.

5.3.6    Visitation Services to U.S. Government and Private Research Ships. Every effort should be made to encourage the cooperation of ships that sail under the following Government-sponsored programs:

        a.    U.S. Coast Guard

        b.    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

        c.    Ships engaged in Government-funded research

Visitation services should be offered to all ships in the various categories listed above. Services to NOAA ships should be coordinated through National Ocean Service Marine Centers, National Marine Centers, and National Marine Fisheries Service Research Centers and Laboratories.

6.    NWS Instruments Installed Aboard Ships. The NWS provides as a loan: (1) a barometer, barograph, and sling psychrometer to ships of the selected class; (2) a barometer and psychrometer to supplementary class ships; and (3) in special cases, a barometer and thermometer to coastal auxiliary class ships. The NWS has provided a limited number of wind systems to ships on the Great Lakes. The NWS also provides sea water thermometers to vessels reporting sea surface temperature. In many cases, shipboard instrumentation is a mix between shipping company and NWS-loaned equipment.

7.    Observational Aids and Marine Publications Provided to Voluntary Observing Ships. Forms, aids, and publications provided VOS program vessels, depending on their observing program, include:

        a.    National Weather Service Observing Handbook No. 1, Marine Surface Weather Observations

        b.    National Weather Service Great Lakes Observing Handbook No. 1, Marine Surface Weather Observations

        c.    WS Form B-81, Ship's Weather Observations

        d.    WS Form B-81(GL), Great Lakes Ship's Weather Observations

        e.    NOAA Form 72-5b, Marine Coastal Weather Log-Ship Station

        f.    WS Form B-80, Weather Report for Immediate transmission

        g.    WS TA B-0-7, Ships' Code Card

        h.    WS TA B-0-7(GL), Great Lakes Ships' Code Card

        i.    Wind plotting board for ships with anemometers

        j.    World Wide Marine Weather Broadcasts

        k.    Radio Stations Accepting Ship's Weather and Oceanographic Reports

        l.    Weather Plotting Maps--upon request

        m.    Mariners Weather Log (quarterly)

        n.    Miscellaneous publications for marine observers

        o.    WS TA D-0-4, Surface Analysis Decode Card

        p.    Sea State-Wind Speed Chart

        q.    Cloud Identification Poster

8.   Observation Procedures. Transmission. and Disposition of NWS Forms by Ships. All voluntary ships are requested to take weather observations on a routine basis while at sea. These observations are encoded according to WMO and U.S. requirements and transmitted to selected shore radio stations for relay to the NWS. Completed weather observation forms are sent to the servicing PMO, who performs a quality review of the coded data. The PMO then sends them to the National Climatic Data Center where they are archived on microfilm and used in a variety of investigations and studies.

8.1    Observation Procedures Aboard Voluntary Observing Ships. All voluntary ships are requested to take and record four observations at intervals of 6 hours daily while at sea. Observations every 3 hours are requested from vessels operating within 200 miles of-the U.S., Canadian, Hawaiian coasts or within 300 miles of named tropical storms or hurricanes. Special observations are made when specifically requested by a Weather Service office or the National Hurricane Center (reference WSOM chapter B-90) and when the ship encounters severe weather conditions, especially those not forecast. These conditions can include ice, strong winds, heavy seas, tropical storms, etc., in accordance with "International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea" instructions.

8.2    Radio Reports from Voluntary Observing Ships. All high seas vessels taking synoptic observations using WS Form B-81 are requested to transcribe them onto WS Form B-80, Weather Report for Immediate Transmission, for submission to the radio officer. The radio officer transmits the observations according to instructions in the NWS publication "Radio Stations Accepting Ships' Weather and Oceanographic Reports." Observations recorded on NOAA Form 72-5b should also be transmitted according to instructions outlined in this publication. PMOs are encouraged to hold frequent discussions with radio officers so that communications problems can be discovered and corrective action taken with the parties involved.

8.3    Disposition of Weather Records by Ships. Shipboard observers should be instructed to forward completed observation forms (NOAA Forms B-81 and 72-5b) and barograph sheets (WS Form 455-12) to their servicing PMO.

A supply of self-addressed envelopes should be furnished to ships for mailing the forms. Requests for additional forms, supplies, and services should be noted by the supervising PMO and handled as expeditiously as possible.

8.4    Disposition of Weather Transmission Forms (WS Form B-80) by Ships. Ships should handle completed radio message forms according to ship policy. Although the NWS has no specific requirement for these forms, when made available, PMOs should check them for conformity to code format and transmission guidelines.

9.    PMO Liaison Activities. Next in priority to ship visitations, the PMOs are responsible for maintaining close liaison with shipping company officials, the U.S. Coast Guard, shore radio stations, and other marine-oriented organizations. Through these contacts the PMOs can gain support for the VOS program and determine the local marine communities' requirements for weather services. Important unfulfilled requirements discovered by these contacts should be brought to the attention of regional personnel and the Marine Observation Program Leader (MOPL) for necessary action.

9.1    Marine Weather Training by PMOs. Insofar as possible, the PMOs are encouraged to provide training in weather observing techniques for shipboard weather observers. The main purpose of the training is to provide the ship's officers with practical assistance in observing techniques and uses of the meteorological services available to shipping. Basic meteorology necessary for weather map analysis and interpretation can be included in the training, if requested. Suggestions for training topics are available from WSH (W/OSO141).

9.2    Merchant Marine Schools. Since the majority of cadets at merchant marine academies will eventually serve aboard ships participating in the VOS, the NWS should provide them with meteorological assistance. When requested by the school administration, NWS forms, publications, guidance, and instruction will be provided if available and as resources permit.

10.    Familiarization Trips. PMOs are required to maintain skills and expertise in meteorological observations and to be well informed concerning all marine meteorological services available to shipping. This requirement cannot be met by ship visitation and liaison alone. To fully understand the mariners and their problems with regard to the VOS, all PMOs should sail aboard a cooperating merchant vessel at least once every 2 years. Arrangements for such voyages should be approved by the regions, the MOPL, and with the cooperating shipping companies.

10.1    Duties While on Familiarization Trips. During a familiarization trip, the PMO should assist deck officers in taking, encoding, and transmitting synoptic observations; discuss the weather broadcast schedules with the radio operator; and suggest that pertinent marine weather bulletins be copied. Using appropriate bulletins, the PMO should demonstrate plotting, drawing, and analysis of surface charts and assist ships' personnel with any questions they may have. In addition, the broadcast analysis and forecasts should be checked for accuracy and consistency. A complete transcript of any problems or discrepancies with these products should be prepared. Dates and times of all observations transmitted and shore radio stations that acknowledge receipt of the messages should be noted. This information, as well as other pertinent facts, should be included in a trip report completed at the end of each voyage and sent to the MOPL (W/OS0141), and the appropriate regional units.

11.    Awards for Voluntary Observing Ships. In order to provide suitable recognition of long or especially effective service rendered by participants in the VOS program, special awards may be granted. Awards are provided to ships, shipping companies, and to individuals in the maritime community. Arrangements for presentation of awards will be made through the MOPL (W/OS0141) and the PMO's appropriate regional supervisor. Where feasible, presentation should be made before a local, civic, or management group. The presentation ceremony should be adequately publicized. Newspaper clippings, pictures, and other pertinent items should be sent to W/OS0141 for distribution to NOAA Public Affairs units and the Mariners Weather Log editor.



Table of Contents:

    1.    Introduction

    2.    Ship Visitation Card, WS Form B-22A

    3.    Weekly Marine Report

    4.    Ship Record Card, WS Form B-31

    5.    VOS Computer Products


    B-30-A1    WS Form B-22A, Sample Entries on Ship Visitation Card

    B-30-A2    WS Form B-31, Sample Entries

    B-30-A3    WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field

    B-30-A4    Ship Registry Identifiers

    B-30-A5    Code Numbers for Ship Route(s)

1.    Introduction. This appendix outlines procedures to be followed by Port Meteorological Officers (PMO) for documenting information about ships in the Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) program. The information is used to:

    Keep vessel distribution lists and mailing addresses up to date.

    Maintain records of shipboard observing equipment and radio facilities.

    Provide data on VOS to other Government agencies and the World Meteorological Organization.

    Monitor PMO ship visitation activities and prepare PMO performance reports.

Uniform procedures to document PMO ship visitation activities are necessary to assure an efficiently managed VOS. PMOs are required to fill out two forms as follows:

    Ship Visitation, WS Form, B-22A, for each ship visited to record what the PMO has done during the visit.

    Ship Record Card, WS Form B-31, whenever a ship is recruited or to document changes to a vessel's mailing address, observing equipment, or sailing data.

Information from WS Form B-22A and WS Form B-31 are entered by the PMOs into the VOS program computer system daily. Details for preparing these forms appear below. See the booklet "VOS Program Computer Information and Data Management System" for information on using the VOS computer system.

2.   Ship Visitation Card. WS Form B-22A. This form is used for documenting PMO ship visits. All PMOs will prepare a WS Form B-22A for every ship visited. In addition, other PMO activities, such as visits to coastal radio stations, marine reporting stations, boat shows, etc., should be documented on this form. Information from the WS Form B-22A is entered into the time-share emptor system by the PMO according to the procedures outlined in the booklet "Instructions for the Computer Information and Data Management System."

Instructions for making entries on WS Form B-22A (gee exhibit B-30-Al) are as follows:


    DATE - Date of the ship visit

    PORT OFFICE - Name of the PMO performing the ship visit, i.e., Miami, Cleveland, etc.

    CALL - Radio call sign of ship

    FLAG - Vessel's nation of registry (from exhibit B-30-A4)

    PROGRAM - Circle the letter representing ship program:

            P - Ship in National Weather Service (NWS) program
            R - Newly recruited ship
            F - Foreign supervised
            U - Ship not interested or not operating in area of interest
            C - Candidate for VOS program membership

    SHIP NAME - Name of ship visited

    BAROMETER NUMBER - Only record numbers for NWS instruments

    COR - Barometer correction (mbs), posted on the instrument, to obtain a sea level pressure reading

    RESET - Barometer adjustment (mbs, normally with screwdriver), to obtain a sea level pressure reading

    BAROGRAPH NUMBER - Only record numbers for NWS instruments

    OTHER INSTRUMENTS - Identify other NWS-accountable instruments onboard the ship

Space is allowed for "comparison of barometers" computations, for indicating which observing forms were supplied to the ship, and for noting the location of the ships barometer.


    VESSEL EVALUATION -    Base your evaluations on the quality and completeness of the
                                                  observations and on how closely the vessel follows the synoptic
                                                  weather reporting schedule.

    OFFICERS' NAMES -        To assist in remembering shipboard contacts for future use.

3.   Weekly Marine Report. W/OSO14 prepares a weekly consolidated function report showing ship visits made by all PMOs. The report indicates which ships are new program recruits. All computer entries for ship visits are maintained indefinitely. Copies of the Weekly Marine Report will be provided to all PMOs, regional administrative units, WSH, and, on request, to other interested parties.

4.   Ship Record Card. WS Form B-31. Documentation of the VOS program is accomplished with the Ship Record Card, WS Form B-31 (see exhibit B-30-A2). PMOs enter information from the Ship Record Card into the appropriate computer file. WS Form B-31 is used to (1) document newly recruited ships, (2) record subsequent changes in a ships program, (3) change ship owner or agent address information, and (4) add foreign-supervised ships to Government publication distribution lists. Code entries for data fields on WS Form B-31 are shown in exhibit B-30-A3. Examples of completed WS Form B-31 are shown in exhibit B-30-A2.

After entering the data from WS Form B-31 into the computer, W/OSO14 will check the transactions and initiate any action necessary to correct errors.

PMOs will be provided copies of information contained in the VOS computer files at regular intervals. The PMO should check vessel mailing addresses, and equipment inventories against computer records during each ship visitation. Corrections to computer files are made by the PMO using methods described in the booklet "Instructions for the Computer Information and Data Management System."

There are certain actions that must be completed when preparing WS Form B-31 and when performing computer entries. They are:

    A ship's call sign is required for all entries.

    When an entry in any field is not appropriate or would be "no" or "none," the data field should be left blank.

    Effective date should be entered on all WS B-31 forms.

5.   VOS Computer Products. W/OS014 prepares and distributes computer printouts and mailing labels generated from information in the VOS time-share computer system.

These computer printouts include, but are not limited to:

    Ships - Alphabetical by ship name.

    Ships - Alphabetical by ship call.

    Alphabetical list of ships agents.

    Numerical list of ships agents.

    Ships - Alphabetical by ship name with agent name and address.

    List of ships by supervising PMO.

    Ship observation statistics based on observations relayed through continental U.S. radio stations.

    Mailing labels for Mariners Weather Log, and other mass distributions to ships.


TYP  Type of  Observation Program
    CODE     1     Selected
                2     Supplementary
                3     Auxiliary
                4     Foreign-supervised
                5     Environmental Data Buoy, Ocean Station Vessel, Automated Platform,
                      etc., not to receive mail
                6     Great Lakes
                7     Local Moving Ship, not using synoptic code 
                8     Manned platform and miscellaneous to receive mail 
TYS  Type of Ship Ownership
  CODE C     Commercial
            N     NOAA
            G     Coast Guard
            M     Navy (including MSC)
            O     Other
3-26  SHIP Ship Name
27-28 FLAG Ship Registry (Nation)
    CODE See Exhibit B-30-A4

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 1 of 10)
29-35 CALL Radio Call Sign
  NOTE:    Call sign is restricted to 7 characters.
36-37  MO  Month
CODE     01 for January, 02 for February, etc.
38  YR  Year
CODE    9 for 1979, 0 for 1980, etc.
39-40  PC&M NOTE:  Ships requesting pilot charts and/or Notice to Mariners
             should provide U.S. mailing address. Allow 6-12 weeks for
             mailings to begin 
39  PC  Pilot Charts Requested by Ship
    CODE    A     Atlantic
                P     Pacific
                B     Both
40 M Notice to Mariners Requested
    CODE    Y     Yes

  Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                  (page 2 of 10)
41-72   Applicable to Selected, Supplementary, Great Lakes, and Local Moving ships only.
41   Barometer
    CODE     1     Precision aneroid barometer
                2     Marine mercury barometer (with or without gold slide)
42    Thermometer
    CODE     1      Mercury
                2      Alcohol
                3      Electric (resistance)
43    Thermometer Exposure
    CODE    1     Sling
                2     Aspirated Assmann type (Psychron)
                3     Screen (natural ventilation)
                4     Screen (forced ventilation)
                5     Unscreened
                6     Whirling
44   Hygrometer
    CODE     1     Psychrometer
                2     Hair hygrometer

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 3 of 10)
Card 1
45   Hygrometer Exposure
    CODE     1     Sling
                2     Aspirated, Assmann type (Psychron)
                3     Screen (natural ventilation)
                4     Screen (forced ventilation)
                5     Unscreened
                6     Whirling
46   Sea Surface Temperature Method
    CODE     1     Thermometer in condenser intake
                2     Bucket thermometer
                3     Hull sensor
                4     Tank thermometer
                5     Infrared sensor
                6     Other
47   Barograph
    CODE     1     Open (variable) scale
                2     Small (fixed) scale
48   Barograph Clock Time (days)
    CODE     Report actual number of whole days required for clock
                to make one revolution (U.S.- provided barographs all
                have 4-day clocks)

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 4 of 10)
Card 1
49  10 Instrument Ownership
    CODE     W    NWS-owned Barometer and Barograph
                B     NWS-owned Barometer
                O     NWS-owned Barograph
50-52 OTR INST Other Instruments
    CODE    1     Anemometer (NWS-owned)
                2     Anemometer
                3     Expendable Bathythermograph
                4     Radiosonde equipment
                5     Salinity - Temperature - Depth sensor
                6     Bathythermometer or Baththermograph
53 OPS Number of Radio Operators
    CODE Enter actual number
54 RT Radiotelephone
    CODE     Y    YES
                I     INMARSAT
                B    BOTH
55 CW Type of Radiotelegraph
    CODE    M     Medium Wave
                S     Short Wave
                B     Both

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 5 of 10)
Card 1
56-57  PLAT HT Platform Height
    CODE    Enter height of barometer (meters)
58-59 ANEM HT Anemometer Height
    CODE    Enter height of anemometer (meters)
60-63 SP RDO AID Special Radio Equipment
    CODE     FX     Facsimile
                RT     Radioteletype
                OT     Other
64 RL Radio Licensee
    CODE     R     RCA
                I      ITT
                T     Tropical Radio
                C     Cable and Wireless
                O     Other
65 SSB Voice Radio Reporting Capability only
    CODE    Y      Yes

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                               (page 6 of 10)
Card 1
66  OT Radioman Overtime Authorized
    CODE    Y     Yes
67-72 ROUTES Ship Route(s)
    CODE See exhibit B-30-A5
73 O Ocean - Area of Primary Operation
    CODE     A     Atlantic (including Gulf of Mexico and Great -                          Lakes)
                P     Pacific
                O    Other
74  Port Office
    CODE     A     Anchorage
                B     Baltimore
                C     Cleveland (Great Lakes)
                D     Kodiak
                F     San Francisco
                G     Chicago
                H     Honolulu
                J     Newark
                K     Jacksonville
                M     M iami
                N     Norfolk
                O     New Orleans
                S     Seattle
                T     Los Angeles
                U     Houston
                V     Valdez
                Y     New York

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 7 of 10)
Card 1
75-77 AGENT Agent Number
    CODE    W/OSO14 will provide agent number
78 CD Card Number
    CODE    1
79 C Cooperative Ship Program Certificate
    CODE     Y     Request Certificate
                N     Certificate Not Wanted
80 CH Action (All actions require inclusion of ship call sign)
    CODE     A     Add (newly recruited or instated ship)
                C     Change (data field change)
                I     Inactive (ship not cooperating, sold, scrapped, etc.

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 8 of 10)
Card 1
1-30  CINO Company Name
66-69 STA State or Country
    CODE    See exhibit B-30-A4
70-74  ZIP Zip Code (do not enter if a foreign country)
75-77 AGENT  Agent Number
78 CD Card Number
    CODE     2
79 B Blank - Not Used
80  CH Action
    CODE     A      Add (new agent)
                C     Change (change in any card 2 data field)
                I      Inactive

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 9 of 10)
Card 1
1-30  ADRS Street Address
54-74 CITY City
75-77 AGENT Agent Number
78 CD Card Number
79  B Blank - Not Used
80  CH Action
    CODE     A     Add (new agent)
                C     Change (change in any card 3 data field)
                I      Inactive
NOTE:   When entering B-31 date in thecomputer, use the 3-digit PMO codes, and enter year (YR) with two digits. For Other Instruments, Satellite Communications, Facsimile, or Radioteletype equipment, enter Y if present, or leave blank.

Exhibit B-30-A3:     WS Form B-31, Code Entries for Data Field
                                (page 10 of 10)
AC    Antigua  EI    Ireland
AF    Afghanistan  EK    Equatorial Republic
AG    Algeria  ES    El Salvador
AL    Albania ET    Ethiopia
AO    Angola FA    Falkland Islands
AQ    American Samoa  FG    French Guiana
AR    Argentina  FI    Finland
AS    Australia  FO    Faeroe Islands
AU    Austria  FR    France
AY    Antarctica  FS    French Southern and Antarctic Lands
BA    Bahrain  
BB    Barbados  FT    French Territory of Afars and Issas
BD    Bermuda   
BE    Belgium  GA    Gambia
BF    Bahamas  GB    Gabon
BG    Bangladesh  GC    Germany, East
BH    Belize  GE    Germany, West
BI    Burundi  GH    Ghana
BL    Bolivia  GI    Gibraltar
BM    Burma  GJ    Grenada
BR    Brazil  GL    Greenland
BU    Bulgaria  GP    Guadeloupe
BX    Brunei  GQ    Guam
CA    Canada  GR    Greece
CB    Cambodia  GT    Guatemala
CE    Sri Lanka (Ceylon)  GV    Guinea
CF    Congo  GY    Guyana
CG    Zaire  HA    Haiti
CH    China  HK    Hong Kong
CI    Chile  HO    Honduras
CJ    Cayman Islands  HU    Hungary
CK    Cocos Islands  IC    Iceland
CM    Cameroon ID    Indonesia
CO    Columbia  IN    India
CS    Costa Rica  IO    British Indian Ocean Territory
CU    Cuba   
CV    Cape Verde Islands  IR    Iran
CY    Cyprus  IS    Israel
CZ    Czechoslovakia  IT    Italy
DA    Denmark  IV    Ivory Coast
DM    Dahomey  IZ    Iraq
DO    Dominica  JA    Japan
DR    Dominican Republic  JM    Jamaica
EC    Ecuador  JO    Jordan
EG    Egypt  KE    Kenya
KN     Korea, North  RE     Reunion
KS     Korea, South  RO     Romania
KU     Kuwait  RP     Philippines
LA     Laos  RQ     Puerto Rico
LE     Lebanon  SA     Saudi Arabia
LI     Liberia  SB    St. Pierre and Miquelon
LX     Luxembourg  SC    St. Christopher-Nevis
LY     Libya  SE     Seychelles Islands
MA     Malagasy Republic  SF     South Africa
MB     Martinique SG     Senegal
MC     Macao  SH    St. Helena
ME     Spanish Territory of Northern Morocco  SL     Sierra Leone
SN     Singapore
MG     Mongolia  SO     Somalia Republic
MH     Montserrat  SP     Spain
MN      Monaco  SS     Spanish Sahara
MO     Morocco  ST    St. Lucia
MP     Mauritius  SU     Sudan
MR     Mauritania  SW     Sweden
MT     Malta  SY     Syria
MU     Oman  SZ     Switzerland
MV     Maldives  TC     United Arab Emirates
MX     Mexico  TD     Trinidad & Tobago
MY     Malaysia  TH     Thailand
MZ     Mozambique  TK     Turks & Caicos Islands
NA     Netherlands Antilles  TN     Tongo
NI     Nigeria  TO     Togo
NL     Netherlands  TP    Sao Tome and Principe
NO     Norway  TS     Tunisia
NP     Nepal  TU     Turkey
NR     Nauru  TW     Taiwan (Formosa)
NS     Surinam  TZ     Tanzania
NU     Nicaragua  UK     Great Britian
NZ    New Zealand  UR     Soviet Union
PA     Paraguay  US     United States
PE     Peru  UY     Uruguay
PF     Paracel Islands  VC    St. Vincent
PR     Pakistan  VE     Venezuela
PL     Poland  VI     British Virgin Islands
PN     Panama  VN     Vietnam, North
PO     Portugal  VQ     Virgin Islands
PP     Papua, New Guinea  VS     Vietnam, South
PQ     Canal Zone  WS     Western Samoa
PT     Portuguese Timor  YE     Yeman (Sana)
PU     Portuguese Guinea  YO     Yugoslavia
QA     Qatar YS     Yemen (Aden)

Exhibit B-30-A4:     Ship Registry Identifiers

CODE                             SHIP ROUTES
01 Around the World
02 Variable
03 Intercoastal (U.S. East Coast to U.S. West Coast)
04 Coastwise (U.S. East and Gulf Coast)
05 Coastwise (U.S. West Coast)
06 U.S. East Coast to Northern Europe
07 U.S. East Coast to Mediterranean and Middle East
08 U.S. East Coast to South Africa
09 U.S. East Coast to Eastern South America
10 U.S. East Coast to Caribbean and Northern South America
11 East and Gulf Coast to Western South America
12 East and Gulf Coast to Western Pacific
13 U.S. Gulf Coast to Northern Europe
14 U.S. Gulf Coast to Mediterranean and Middle East
15 U.S. Gulf Coast to South Africa
16 U.S. Gulf Coast to Eastern South America
17 U.S. Gulf Coast to Caribbean and Northern South America
18 U.S. West Coast to Alaska
19 U.S. West Coast to Hawaii
20 U.S. West Coast to Western Pacific
21 U.S. West Coast to Central and South America
22 U.S. West Coast to Caribbean and Northern South America
23 U.S. West Coast to Europe via Panama Canal
24 U.S. West Coast to South Atlantic
25  Inter-Island, Pacific
26  U.S. East and Gulf Coast to Hawaii
27 Gulf of Mexico water
28 U.S. East and Gulf Coasts to Australia
29 U.S. West Coast to Australia
30 Alaskan waters
31 Great Lakes

Exhibit B-30-A5:   Code Numbers for Ship Route(s)

WSOM Issuance
92-4    8-26-92