commerce logo                      U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                                                                    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                                                                    NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
                                                                     Silver Spring, Md. 20910
                                                                                                                       W/OM11

September 14, 1992

TO:                 All Holders of Operations Manual

SUBJECT: Transmittal Memorandum for Operations Manual Issuance 92-5

1. Material Transmitted:

WSOM Chapter C-42, Winter Weather Warnings

2. Summary:

a. The entire chapter has been extensively revised and should be considered as an entirely new issuance.

b. Reference is made to the modernization and associated restructuring of the NWS (sections 2, 5.6, and 5.7).

c. Section 3 and portions of section 6.4 concerning the Area Weather Update and the Short-Term Weather Summary and Forecast will be implemented at a later date following labor management relations completion.

d. The Winter Weather Watch/Warning/Advisory product (AFOS Category WSW) is introduced that acts as a vehicle for issuing winter storm watches, warnings, and advisories (section 6).

e. The concept of Winter Storm Outlooks is formalized (section 6.1).

f. Guidance on the issuance of Winter Storm Watches is expanded including information on use of the generic code (section 6.2).

g. Winter Storm Warnings can be issued with either generic or event-specific mass news disseminator (MND) headers as well as generic or event-specific headlines (section 6.3.1).

h. Winter Weather Advisories can be issued with either generic or event-specific MND headers as well as generic or event-specific headlines (section 6.3.2).

i. Additional guidance is provided on how to deal with various watches and warnings in effect at the same time (section 6.3.3).

j. Numerous examples have been included to highlight appropriate initiatives in the chapter.

k. The format for state forecasts follows the guidelines that are presently outlined in the new draft version of WSOM Chapter C-10, State Forecasts. WSOM Chapter C-10 is expected to be available this summer. Offices should not adopt this new format until C-10 is implemented.

3. Effects on Other Instructions:

Supersedes portions of WSOM Chapter C-42, Transmittal Issuance 83-19, November 9, 1983, and portions of Operations Manual Letter 3-87, September 24, 1987.

Enhances and essentially replaces the information on excessive heat found in WSOM Chapter C-11, Transmittal Issuance 84-11, July 11, 1984.

 

 

Elbert W. Friday, Jr.
Assistant Administrator
for Weather Services


Issue Date Org. Code             NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE Part Chap.
9-14-92 W/OM11                             Operations Manual

WINTER WEATHER WARNINGS

Table of Contents:

    1.    Introduction

    2.    Transition to the Modernized and Restructured NWS

    3.    Multi-tier Concept

    4.    Hazardous Winter Weather Phenomena Definitions

            4.1 Snow
                        4.1.1 Heavy Snow
                        4.1.2 Snow Squalls
                        4.1.3 Snow Showers
                        4.1.4 Snow Flurries
                        4.1.5 Blowing Snow
                        4.1.6 Drifting Snow
            4.2 Blizzard
            4.3 Freezing Rain or Drizzle
            4.4 Ice Storm
            4.5 Sleet
            4.6 Freeze
            4.7 Frost
            4.8 Wind Chill
            4.9 Other

    5.    Organizational Responsibilities

            5.1 Weather Service Headquarters (WSH)
            5.2 Regional Headquarters (RH)
            5.3 National Meteorological Center (NMC)
            5.4 Weather Service Forecast Office (WSFO)
            5.5 Weather Service Office (WSO)
            5.6 NEXRAD WSFO (NWSFO)
            5.7 NEXRAD WSO (NWSO)

    6.    Winter Weather Products

            6.1 Winter Storm Outlook
            6.2 Winter Storm Watches
                        6.2.1 Cancellation of Winter Storm Watches
            6.3 Winter Storm Warnings and Winter Weather Advisories
                        6.3.1 Winter Storm Warnings
                        6.3.2 Winter Weather Advisories
                        6.3.3 Watches, Warnings, and Advisories in Effect at the Same Time
                        6.3.4 Cancellation/Termination of Winter Storm Warnings and Advisories
            6.4 Statements and Short-term Forecasts
            6.5 Snow Avalanche Bulletin

    7.   Information in Routine Forecasts

    8.    Winter Weather Spotters

    9.   Collection and Dissemination of Road Condition Reports

    10.    Reports to Regional Headquarters and Weather Service Headquarters

Exhibit:

C-42-1 Wind Chill Table and Formula

WSOM Issuance
92-5 9-14-92


1. Introduction. This Weather Service Operations Manual (WSOM) chapter addresses the National Weather Service (NWS) policies and procedures and provides general guidelines for issuing messages to inform the public of hazardous winter weather conditions. Written instructions cannot cover every situation. Operational personnel must use initiative and good professional judgment to minimize the risk to public safety and property in those conditions or events not covered by these or other instructions.

2. Transition to the Modernized and Restructured NWS. The NWS is proceeding with the Modernization and Associated Restructuring (MAR). Office designations and responsibilities change during the different stages of the transition. This chapter describes the different functions of each type of office as the NWS transitions toward modernization: Weather Service Forecast Offices (WSFO), Weather Service Office (WSO), Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) WSFO (NWSFO), and NEXRAD WSO (NWSO).

Guidance outlined in this chapter will be valid through that period of the MAR which is characterized by the introduction of the Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), which was developed by the NEXRAD program, and the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS). During this period, NWSFOs and NWSOs should use their new technology to prepare more detailed real-time and short-term forecast enhancements of an ongoing winter weather event. This chapter addresses the winter weather product responsibilities of each office (WSFO, WSO, NWSFO, and NWSO) during the transition to the modernized and restructured NWS.

New products or procedures will most likely be introduced during the transition. This chapter will be either rewritten or amended by means of an Operations Manual Letter (OML) to accommodate changes as they unfold.

3. Multi-tier Concept. The NWS Winter Weather Warning Program should use, when appropriate, a multi-tier concept to increase public awareness and promote a proper response. Generically, these are:

Outlook--An outlook is used to indicate that a hazardous weather or hydrologic event may develop. It is intended to provide information to those who need considerable lead time to prepare for the event.

Watch--A watch is used when the risk of a hazardous weather or hydrologic event has increased significantly, but its occurrence, location, and/or timing is still uncertain. It is intended to provide enough lead time so those who need to set their plans in motion can do so.

Warning/Advisory--These products are issued when a hazardous weather or hydrologic event is occurring, is imminent, or has a very high probability of occurrence. A warning is used for conditions posing a threat to life or property. Advisories are for less serious conditions that cause significant inconvenience and, if caution is not exercised, could lead to situations that may threaten life and/or property.

Statements--Issued at frequent intervals, special weather statements (AFOS [Automation of Field Operations and Services] category SPS) amplify watches, warnings, and advisories by reinforcing the message, indicating what is expected, and outlining appropriate response actions. During active weather, they should be issued more frequently to highlight existing conditions and how they might change in time. Severe weather statements (AFOS category SVS) should be issued during blizzard warnings for greater emphasis on the life-threatening nature of these dangerous storms.

Short Term Weather Summaries and Forecasts--

To BE ISSUED AT A LATER DATE PENDING
LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS (LMR) COMPLETION

4. Hazardous Winter Weather Phenomena Definitions.

4.1 Snow. A steady fall of snow for several hours or more. Qualifiers, such as occasional or intermittent, are used when a steady, prolonged (for several hours or more) fall is not expected.

4.1.1 Heavy Snow. This generally means:

a. snowfall accumulating to 4 inches or more in depth in 12 hours or less; or

b. snowfall accumulating to 6 inches or more in depth in 24 hours or less.

Some variation in the criteria for heavy snowfall in certain sections of the country may be established at the option of the regional director. This includes both higher thresholds for regions that are accustomed to snow and lower thresholds for areas where lesser accumulations can cause significant impacts. Such variations should be formalized through the issuance of a Regional Operations Manual Letter (ROML).

Express snowfall amounts as a range of values, e.g., "8 to 12 inches." However, in heavy snow situations where there is considerable uncertainty concerning the range of values, it may be more appropriate to use phrases, such as "...up to 12 inches..." or alternatively "...8 inches or more...".

4.1.2 Snow Squalls. Snow squalls are intense, but limited duration, periods of moderate to heavy snowfall, accompanied by strong, gusty surface winds and possibly lightning (generally moderate to heavy snow showers). Snow accumulation may be significant. Regional variation to this definition is expected. For example, close to the Great Lakes, snow squalls are usually locally intense, narrow bands of heavy snow that can extend over long distances, persist for many hours, and produce 6 inches or more of snow in 12 hours or less.

4.1.3 Snow Showers. A snow shower is a short duration of moderate snowfall. Some accumulation is possible.

4.1.4 Snow Flurries. Snow flurries are an intermittent light snowfall of short duration (generally light snow showers) with no measurable accumulation (trace category).

4.1.5 Blowing Snow. Blowing snow is wind-driven snow that reduces surface visibility. Blowing snow can be falling snow or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds. Blowing snow is usually accompanied by drifting snow.

4.1.6 Drifting Snow. Drifting snow is an uneven distribution of snowfall/snow depth caused by strong surface winds. Drifting snow may occur during or after a snowfall. Drifting snow is usually associated with blowing snow.

4.2 Blizzard. A blizzard means that the following conditions are expected to prevail for a period of 3 hours or longer.

(1) Sustained wind or frequent gusts to 35 miles an hour or greater; and

(2) considerable falling and/or blowing snow (i.e., reducing visibility frequently to less than 1/4 mile).

Although there is no set temperature requirement for blizzard conditions, the life-threatening nature of the low temperatures in combination with the other hazardous conditions of wind, snow, and poor visibility increases dramatically when the temperature falls below 20EF.

4.3 Freezing Rain or Drizzle. This occurs when rain or drizzle freezes on surfaces, such as the ground, trees, power lines, motor vehicles, streets, highways, etc. Small accumulations of ice can cause driving and walking difficulties while heavy accumulations produce extremely dangerous and damaging situations primarily by pulling down trees and utility lines.

4.4 Ice Storm. An ice storm is used to describe occasions when damaging accumulations of ice are expected during freezing rain situations. Significant accumulations of ice pull down trees and utility lines resulting in loss of power and communication. These accumulations of ice make walking and driving extremely dangerous. Significant ice accumulations are usually accumulations of .25 inches (one quarter of an inch) or greater. Some variations in the criteria for "significant" accumulations of ice may be established by the regional director and formalized through the issuance of a ROML. This includes both higher thresholds for regions that are accustomed to ice events and lower thresholds for areas where lesser amounts can cause major problems.

4.5 Sleet. Sleet is defined as pellets of ice composed of frozen or mostly frozen raindrops or refrozen partially melted snowflakes. These pellets of ice usually bounce after hitting the ground or other hard surfaces. Heavy sleet is a relatively rare event defined as an accumulation of ice pellets covering the ground to a depth of 1/2 inch or more.

4.6 Freeze. A freeze is when the surface air temperature is expected to be 32EF or below over a widespread area for a climatologically significant period of time. Use of the term is usually restricted to advective situations or to occasions when wind or other conditions prevent frost. Adjectives, such as "killing," "severe," or "hard," should be used when appropriate. "Killing" may be used during the growing season when the temperature is expected to be low enough for a sufficient duration to kill all but the hardiest herbaceous crops. (See section 6 regarding warnings and advisories.)

4.7 Frost. Frost describes the formation of thin ice crystals on the ground or other surfaces in the form of scales, needles, feathers, or fans. Frost develops under conditions similar to dew, except the temperatures of the Earth's surface and earthbound objects falls below 32EF. As with the term "freeze," this condition is primarily significant during the growing season. If a frost period is sufficiently severe to end the growing season or delay its beginning, it is commonly referred to as a "killing frost." Because frost is primarily an event that occurs as the result of radiational cooling, it frequently occurs with a thermometer level temperature in the mid-30s.

4.8 Wind Chill. Increased wind speeds accelerate heat loss from exposed skin. No specific rules exist for determining when wind chill becomes dangerous. As a general rule, the threshold for potentially dangerous wind chill conditions is about -20EF. However, mitigating circumstances, such as strong sunshine, may require colder threshold temperatures. Regional variations exist and different wind chill thresholds may be established at the option of the regional directors and formalized through the issuance of ROMLs. Different thresholds may exist within the same region. See Exhibit C-42-1 for the Wind Chill Table and Formula.

4.9 Other. Other hazardous winter weather phenomena exist but will not be defined here. Localized phenomena, such as winter thaw problems in Alaska or the northern tier of the lower 48 states, should be handled using regionally or locally developed criteria and formalized with a ROML.

5. Organizational Responsibilities.

5.1 Weather Service Headquarters (WSH). Responsibility for the winter weather warning service rests with the Assistant Administrator for Weather Services. Staff assistance is provided by the Director, Office of Meteorology. This support includes preparation of the WSOM chapter and user notification of any product, format, and/or code changes to any products covered by this chapter.

GRaph

 

5.2 Regional Headquarters (RH). RHs maintain a general overview of winter weather services provided by all NWS offices in their region. RHs are responsible for developing and coordinating ROMLs to formalize applicable local and regional variations to the national criteria for winter weather products. They provide quality control over products issued and services rendered, and they may prepare critiques of office performance during significant winter weather events. The RHs also ensure each field office develops and maintains the proper level of preparedness. This includes an annual review and update, as needed, of the Station Duty Manual, review of pertinent WSOM chapters, and a program of periodic drills designed to test the ability of various offices to meet winter weather threats. (See WSOM Chapter A-17, Emergency Drills.)

5.3 National Meteorological Center (NMC). NMC is the central guidance unit and is responsible for the issuance of prognostic charts and written discussions. Coordination between NMC and appropriate field offices is strongly encouraged, particularly about forecast factors that may make a watch or warning necessary. NMC routinely issues guidance heavy snow forecasts in graphical form (AFOS graphic NMCGPH93S) with an accompanying discussion (AFOS identifier CCCQPFHSD).

5.4 Weather Service Forecast Office (WSFO). WSFOs are responsible for the issuance and dissemination of outlooks, watches, warnings, advisories, and statements within their assigned areas. Each office should coordinate with adjacent WSFO/NWSFOs, its assigned WSO/NWSOs, and NMC when appropriate and as time permits.

5.5 Weather Service Office (WSO). WSOs are responsible for the prompt and thorough dissemination of appropriate outlooks, watches, warnings, advisories, and statements issued by the parent WSFO/NWSFO. WSOs are also responsible for issuing statements to keep the public informed of local conditions that were not included in products issued by the parent WSFO/NWSFO. At regional option, WSOs may issue warnings and advisories for localized events, such as heavy snow warnings, snow advisories, etc. Any such releases should be coordinated with the parent WSFO preferably before issuance.

If local conditions indicate a warning is needed and no warning has been issued by the parent WSFO/NWSFO, the WSO should immediately contact the WSFO/ NWSFO and agree on a course of action. However, the WSO has authority to issue warnings if there is insufficient time for coordination or it is unable to contact the WSFO/NWSFO. As soon as possible, the WSO shall notify the parent WSFO/NWSFO of the actions that were taken. Whenever warnings are issued for its area, WSOs should, if staffing permits, provide continuous service as long as the hazardous weather situation requires. Authority for determining when the situation requires continuous service rests with the area manager.

5.6 NEXRAD WSFO (NWSFO). The functions and responsibilities of an NWSFO are identical to those of a WSFO (see section 5.4). The increased level of information from the WSR-88D will enable the office to provide more detailed and accurate warning and information services. Each office should coordinate with adjacent WSFO/NWSFOY, its assigned WSO/NWSOs, and NMC when appropriate and as time permits.

5.7 NEXRAD WSO (NWSO). The responsibilities of an NWSO are almost identical to those of a WSO (see section 5.5). The increased level of information from the WSR-88D will enable the office to provide more detailed and accurate short-term updates of ongoing weather events.

6. Winter Weather Products. Winter weather watches, warnings, and advisories should be issued under the AFOS category winter storm watch/warning/advisory (WSW) to inform the public of significant winter weather events. This includes frost and freeze warnings where authorized. NOTE: Use of the AFOS category WSW ensures that emergency management communications systems can be programmed to discriminate between watch/warning/advisory issuances and statements that amplify these products. Snow avalanche bulletins (see section 6.5) should be issued under the AFOS category SAB. Winter weather outlooks, when issued, should be released under AFOS category SPS.

Outlooks, watches, warnings, and advisories should be reissued whenever there is a change to the timing, areal extent, or type of event expected. Special weather statements should be issued during each forecast cycle to amplify current watches, warnings, and advisories and to highlight appropriate response actions.

During active weather, especially when warnings or advisories are in effect, special weather statements should be issued frequently to keep users informed on the current and short-term aspects of the storm. NOTE: Severe weather statements should be used during blizzard situations.

6.1 Winter Storm Outlook. This product may be issued by a WSFO/NWSFO when there is a good chance of a major winter storm beyond the point normally covered by a watch (i.e., fourth period or day 3 through 5 of the extended forecast). The need for an outlook will likely come from (1) NMC guidance, (2) high confidence that a large-scale storm will occur, and (3) need for advance public notice. A deciding factor may be an upcoming national holiday or other regionally significant event with associated widespread travel.

It is important to have an agreement between the forecast staff, adjacent offices, and NMC to reach a consensus opinion to avoid the on-again, off-again syndrome and geographical/time discontinuities. It is important that the NWS speak with one voice when alerting users to the potential for such an event. If no agreement or compromise can be reached, then the issuance of the outlook should be postponed until agreement is possible.

The winter storm outlook should provide information about the upcoming weather event which is inappropriate for the extended forecast section of the state forecast product (AFOS category SFP). The prime objective of the outlook is to inform the users of the potential of the upcoming event. Use of actual snowfall amounts should be avoided. Outlooks should contain qualifying terms, such as heavy snow or very heavy snow, rather than specific numbers to describe potential snowfall.

Whenever a winter storm outlook is issued, the extended forecast section of the SFP should include appropriate wording which will bring attention to the upcoming weather event, but no potential snowfall amounts shall be mentioned in the SFP. Outlooks should not be highlighted in the SFP.

Winter storm outlooks should be issued in the SPS and should use the appropriate Universal Generic Code (UGC). The Mass News Dissemination (MND) header should be "SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT." Use the (Z) form of the UGC as described in WSOM Chapter C-63, NOAA Weather Wire Service Dissemination. The problem weather should be headlined in the body of the message as illustrated in the following examples. Do not issue a cancellation for an outlook, but if the weather threat diminishes, an SPS should be issued acknowledging that fact.

Examples:

RNOSPSRNO
TTAA00 KRNO 142004
NVZ001-003-150200-

SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RENO NV
1200 NOON PST WED FEB 14 1990

...A STORM WITH HEAVY SNOW APPEARS HEADED TOWARD NORTHERN NEVADA AND THE LAKE TAHOE AREA THIS HOLIDAY WEEKEND...
ANOTHER PACIFIC STORM IN THE GULF OF ALASKA WILL DIVE SOUTH ALONG THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST COAST THURSDAY. THIS STORM SYSTEM WILL BRING A CHANCE OF SNOW TO NORTHERN NEVADA AND THE LAKE TAHOE AREA BY LATE THURSDAY. SNOW WILL CONTINUE FRIDAY AND INTO THE HOLIDAY WEEKEND. DEPENDING ON THE TRACK OF THE SLOW MOVING STORM...THERE IS THE POTENTIAL FOR VERY HEAVY SNOWFALL DURING THE HOLIDAY WEEKEND...PARTICULARLY ALONG THE WEST SLOPES OF THE SIERRA AROUND LAKE TAHOE.

ANYONE PLANNING TRAVEL OR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES SHOULD KEEP INFORMED ON THE PROGRESS OF THIS STORM. BE READY FOR WINTER DRIVING AND DANGEROUS HIGHWAY CONDITIONS.

WBCSPSWBC
TTAA00 KWBC 112100
VAZ001>004-006>009-120300-

SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE WASHINGTON DC
400 PM EST THU JAN 11 1990

...POTENTIAL WINTER WEATHER PROBLEMS FOR SOUTHERN VIRGINIA SUNDAY...
A WEATHER SYSTEM WILL DEVELOP OVER LOUISIANA AND MISSISSIPPI SATURDAY AND INTENSIFY AS IT MOVES OFF THE NORTH CAROLINA COAST EARLY MONDAY. IF THE STORM FOLLOWS THIS TRACK...THERE IS THE POTENTIAL FOR A WINTER STORM WITH HEAVY SNOW AND/OR FREEZING RAIN OVER SOUTHERN VIRGINIA ON SUNDAY.

ANYONE PLANNING TO TRAVEL IN SOUTHERN VIRGINIA ON SUNDAY SHOULD KEEP INFORMED ON THE POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THIS STORM.

BOSSPSBOS
TTAA00 KBOS 150900
MAZALL-152200-

SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BOSTON MA
400 AM EST FRI FEB 15 1991

...THERE IS A CHANCE OF HEAVY SNOW FOR NEW ENGLAND ON MONDAY...
A STORM SYSTEM IS EXPECTED TO DEVELOP IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND MOVE NORTHEAST TO THE VIRGINIA COAST BY SUNDAY AFTERNOON. THIS STORM WILL INTENSIFY RAPIDLY LATE SUNDAY AND SUNDAY NIGHT AND MAY DEVELOP INTO A MAJOR WINTER STORM. THE EXACT TRACK OF THE STORM IS STILL UNCERTAIN... BUT CURRENT INDICATIONS ARE THAT THE STORM WILL MOVE NORTH ALONG THE EAST COAST. IF THE STORM FOLLOWS THIS TRACK...THERE IS THE POTENTIAL FOR HEAVY SNOW FOR NEW ENGLAND BEGINNING MONDAY.

Example of an SFP:

BOSSFPMA
TTAA00 KBOS 150900
MAZALL-152030-

STATE FORECAST FOR MASSACHUSETTS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BOSTON MA
415 AM EST FRI FEB 15 1991

.TODAY...PARTLY SUNNY AND COLD WITH SNOW FLURRIES IN THE WEST. HIGHS NEAR 30 IN THE EAST TO THE LOWER 20S WEST.
.TONIGHT...CLEAR AND COLD WITH LOWS IN THE LOWER TEENS.
.SATURDAY...SUNNY AND A LITTLE WARMER WITH HIGHS RANGING FROM THE UPPER 20S WEST TO LOWER 30S IN THE EAST.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.SUNDAY...PARTLY CLOUDY WITH LOWS IN THE LOWER 20S AND HIGHS IN THE UPPER 30S.
.MONDAY...CHANCE OF SNOW. TEMPERATURES STEADY AROUND 30.
.TUESDAY...CLEARING AND TURNING COLDER. LOWS IN THE TEENS AND HIGHS IN THE 20S.

6.2 Winter Storm Watches. WSFO/NWSFOs should issue a winter storm watch when conditions are favorable for hazardous winter weather conditions, as defined in section 4, to develop over part or all of the forecast area, but the occurrence is still uncertain. Generally, winter storm watches should be issued for the second, third, or occasionally fourth forecast periods as appropriate. A watch may be continued from a previous forecast into the latter part of the first period of the next routinely issued forecast if the onslaught of the hazardous winter weather event is still uncertain. A watch should generally not be issued for the first 6 hours of a forecast. Watches should be reissued whenever there is a change in the timing, areal extent, or expected conditions.

Watches should be issued via the WSW AFOS category and subsequently headlined in all appropriate zone, local, and state forecast products. The (Z) form of the UGC should be used as described in WSOM Chapter C-63. The MND should be "WINTER STORM WATCH."

Due to the uncertainty associated with a winter storm watch, watches should be headlined with a generic "WINTER STORM WATCH" phrase. Technical terms and descriptions should be avoided. Geographical descriptions should be kept simple and limited to well known regions and larger cities or towns.

The watch provides detailed information about the winter storm which is inappropriate for the zone, local, or state products and includes snowfall amounts when appropriate. For example, winter storm watches should include the following information. NOTE: Information may be reordered to provide the maximum impact.

o Affected area.

o Reason watch was issued.

o Potential snowfall amounts, ice accumulations.

o Explanation of a watch and the uncertainty involved.

o Precautions, call to action statements, potential impact.

Whenever winter storm watches are in effect, SPSs should be issued at least with each forecast package. These statements should include the current watch information, updated weather details, and call to action statements. Use the (Z) form of the UGC and the MND header "SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT."

Winter storm watches either evolve into winter storm warnings or advisories, or they are canceled.

The following examples illustrate the contents of a winter storm watch. Also included are sample state forecasts (SFP) and zone forecasts (ZFP).

Examples of a WSW initiating a winter storm watch:

LITWSWLIT
TTAA00 KLIT 241030
ARZ001-002-004-241800-

WINTER STORM WATCH
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LITTLE ROCK AR
430 AM CST WED JAN 24 1990

...A WINTER STORM WATCH HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR NORTHWEST ARKANSAS FOR TONIGHT AND THURSDAY...
THIS WATCH MEANS THAT HAZARDOUS WINTER WEATHER COULD DEVELOP OVER NORTHWEST ARKANSAS TONIGHT AND THURSDAY. STRONG LOW PRESSURE IN SOUTH TEXAS WILL MOVE TO MISSISSIPPI BY THURSDAY. THIS LOW DUMPED HEAVY SNOW ON NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS AND SOUTHWEST OKLAHOMA DURING THE NIGHT. IT WAS GAINING STRENGTH AS IT MOVED EAST.

RAIN WILL SPREAD ACROSS MOST OF THE STATE TONIGHT AND THURSDAY. HOWEVER...TEMPERATURES WILL BE COLD ENOUGH OVER NORTHWEST ARKANSAS FOR HEAVY SNOW OR A MIXTURE OF RAIN AND SNOW. THE HIGHER ELEVATIONS OF NORTHWEST ARKANSAS INCLUDING THE CITIES OF FT SMITH AND FAYETTEVILLE COULD GET A HALF FOOT OF SNOW TONIGHT AND THURSDAY.

IF YOU ARE IN OR PLAN TO TRAVEL THROUGH NORTHWEST ARKANSAS TONIGHT AND THURSDAY...PREPARE NOW FOR THE IMPACT OF THIS STORM.

Example of an SFP with a watch in the third Period:

FSDSFPSD
TTAA00 KFSD 111010
SDZALL-111700-

STATE FORECAST FOR SOUTH DAKOTA
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SIOUX FALLS SD
410 AM CST FRI JAN 11 1991

...A WINTER STORM WATCH HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA FOR SATURDAY...
.TODAY...MOSTLY CLOUDY AND WINDY. HIGHS IN THE 30S.
.TONIGHT...MOSTLY CLOUDY AND WINDY. LOWS IN THE MID TO UPPER 20S.
.SATURDAY...SNOW...POSSIBLY HEAVY AT TIMES IN THE EAST...WINDY AND COLD. HIGHS NEAR 30.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.SUNDAY...CHANCE OF SNOW. LOWS IN THE 20S AND HIGHS IN THE UPPER 30S.
.MONDAY AND TUESDAY...BREEZY AND WARMER. LOWS IN THE UPPER 20S. HIGHS REACHING THE 40S NORTHEAST TO 50S SOUTHWEST BY TUESDAY.

Example of an SFP with a watch in the second period:

LITSFPAR
TTAA00 KLIT 241030
ARZALL-242230-

STATE FORECAST FOR ARKANSAS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LITTLE ROCK AR
430 AM CST WED JAN 24 1990

...A WINTER STORM WATCH HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR NORTHWEST ARKANSAS TONIGHT AND THURSDAY...
.TODAY...INCREASING CLOUDS. HIGHS UPPER 30S NORTHWEST TO 50S IN THE SOUTH.
.TONIGHT...RAIN...EXCEPT SNOW OR A MIXTURE OF RAIN AND SNOW OVER THE NORTHWEST. LOWS IN THE LOWER 30S IN THE NORTH TO LOWER 50S SOUTH.
.THURSDAY...SNOW...POSSIBLY HEAVY AT TIMES...CONTINUING OVER THE NORTHWEST. RAIN OVER THE REST OF THE STATE. HIGHS IN THE LOWER 30S NORTH TO UPPER 50S SOUTH.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.FRIDAY...CLEARING AND TURNING COLDER. LOWS IN THE UPPER 20S AND HIGHS IN THE 30S.
.SATURDAY...CLEAR AND COLD. LOWS IN THE LOWER 20S NORTH TO LOWER 30S SOUTH. HIGHS RANGING FROM THE 30S NORTH TO 40S IN THE SOUTH.
.SUNDAY...CONTINUED CLEAR AND COLD WITH LOWS IN THE 30S AND HIGHS IN THE 40S.

Example of part of a ZFP illustrating a watch in the second period:

DENZFPCO
TTAA00 KDEN 281700

COLORADO ZONE FORECASTS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DENVER CO
1010 AM MST THU FEB 28 1991

COZ005-282300-
GUNNISON VALLEY
1010 AM MST THU FEB 28 1991

...WINTER STORM WATCH FOR TONIGHT AND FRIDAY...
.THIS AFTERNOON...WINDY WITH SCATTERED SNOW OR MIXED RAIN AND SNOW SHOWERS DEVELOPING. COOLER WITH HIGHS 35 TO 40. SOUTHWEST WIND INCREASING 15 TO 25 MPH WITH SOME STRONGER GUSTS. CHANCE OF PRECIPITATION 40 PERCENT.
.TONIGHT AND FRIDAY...SNOW...POSSIBLY HEAVY AT TIMES. SOUTH WINDS GUSTING TO 35 MPH. LOWS 15 TO 25. HIGHS FRIDAY UPPER 20S AND LOWER 30S. CHANCE OF SNOW 80 PERCENT BOTH TONIGHT AND FRIDAY.

GUNNISON U30S L20S L30S
$$

(The rest of the Colorado zones would follow.)

Example of an SFP with the watch continued in the first period:

LITSFPAR
TTAA00 KLIT 242230
ARZALL-251030-

STATE FORECAST FOR ARKANSAS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LITTLE ROCK AR
430 PM CST WED JAN 24 1990

...A WINTER STORM WATCH IS IN EFFECT FOR NORTHWEST ARKANSAS TONIGHT AND THURSDAY...
.TONIGHT...RAIN SPREADING ACROSS MOST OF THE STATE EXCEPT SNOW OR A MIXTURE OF RAIN AND SNOW NORTHWEST. SNOW ACCUMULATIONS OF 2 INCHES POSSIBLE. LOWS FROM THE LOWER 30S NORTH TO THE LOWER 50S SOUTH.
.THURSDAY...SNOW NORTHWEST...POSSIBLY HEAVY AT TIMES. RAIN NORTHEAST AND SOUTH. HIGHS IN THE LOWER 30S NORTH TO UPPER 50S SOUTH.
.THURSDAY NIGHT...PRECIPITATION ENDING. TOTAL SNOWFALL NORTHWEST AROUND 4 INCHES. LOWS FALLING INTO THE UPPER 20S STATEWIDE.
.FRIDAY...CLEARING AND TURNING COLDER. HIGHS IN THE 30S.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.SATURDAY...CLEAR AND COLD. LOWS IN THE LOWER 20S NORTH TO LOWER 30S SOUTH. HIGHS RANGING FROM THE 30S NORTH TO 40S IN THE SOUTH.
.SUNDAY AND MONDAY...CONTINUED CLEAR AND COLD WITH LOWS IN THE 30S AND HIGHS IN THE 40S.

Example of part of a ZFP with the watch in the first period:

LITZFPAR
TTAA00 KLIT 242315

ARKANSAS ZONE FORECASTS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LITTLE ROCK AR
415 PM CST WED JAN 24 1990

ARZ001>005-250330-
ARKANSAS ZONES 1 2 3 4 5
415 PM CST WED JAN 24 1990

...WINTER STORM WATCH FOR LATE TONIGHT AND THURSDAY... .TONIGHT...SNOW...OR A MIXTURE OF RAIN AND SNOW...BEGINNING AROUND MIDNIGHT. ACCUMULATIONS NEAR 2 INCHES POSSIBLE BY SUNRISE. LOWS IN THE LOWER 30S. NORTHEAST WIND 5 TO 10 MPH. CHANCE OF PRECIPITATION 70 PERCENT. .THURSDAY...MIXED SNOW AND RAIN CHANGING TO ALL SNOW DURING THE EARLY MORNING. SNOW CONTINUING THROUGH THE DAY. HIGHS IN THE LOWER 30S. NORTH WINDS 10 TO 15 MPH. CHANCE OF PRECIPITATION 80 PERCENT.
.THURSDAY NIGHT...SNOW ENDING DURING THE EVENING HOURS. STORM TOTALS OF 4 TO 6 INCHES POSSIBLE. COLDER WITH LOWS IN THE UPPER 20S. CHANCE OF SNOW 80 PERCENT.
.FRIDAY...CLEARING AND COLDER. HIGH IN THE MID 30S.
$$

6.2.1 Cancellation of Winter Storm Watches. Winter storm watches should be cancelled when the forecaster believes the threat of hazardous winter weather will not develop. Watches should be cancelled by issuing an SPS and updating affected forecasts to remove the watch terminology. Use the MND header, "SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT," and the (Z) form of the UGC. Include the appropriate headline/lead sentence to highlight the cancellation.

6.3 Winter Storm Warnings and Winter Weather Advisories. WSFOs and NWSFOs issue these products whenever hazardous or significant winter weather, as defined in section 4, is occurring, is imminent, or has a very high probability of occurrence. At regional option, WSOs and NWSOs may issue these products for localized situations.

Criteria do not restrict the issuance of a warning or advisory for lesser amounts of snow, ice, etc., when in the forecaster's opinion it will occur in combination with other elements, producing a significant or hazardous condition. These products should be issued in the AFOS category WSW and subsequently headlined in appropriate zone, local, and state forecast products.

6.3.1 Winter Storm Warnings. Winter storm warnings should be issued when hazardous winter weather, as defined in section 4, is occurring, imminent, or highly likely over part or all of the forecast area. Winter storm warnings are normally issued for the first period of the forecast but can be extended into the second period if the forecaster is very confident the event will continue. Update appropriate forecasts by highlighting the warning in the headline/lead sentence. Winter storm warnings should be reissued whenever there is a change to the timing, areal extent, or expected condition.

Issue warnings via the AFOS category WSW. Use the (Z) form of the UGC as described in WSOM Chapter C-63. The MND header should be "WINTER STORM WARNING," especially if more than one weather event is occurring or is forecast. Event specific MND headers may be used, such as "HEAVY SNOW WARNING" or "ICE STORM WARNING," if the forecaster is confident that nothing else could occur.

The warning should provide detailed information about the winter storm which is inappropriate for the zone, local, or state forecast products and should include the following. NOTE: The order of information may vary in order to produce the greatest impact.

o Affected area.

o Potential snowfall amounts, ice accumulations, wind chill, etc.

o Timing of the event (beginning, ending, time of heaviest precipitation or worst conditions, duration, etc.).

o Reason the warning was issued.

o Definition of a warning (particularly if event has not yet begun).

o Safety rules, call to action statements.

Warnings should be headlined with the generic "WINTER STORM WARNING" for events having more than one hazard (i.e., freezing rain and snow) or when the exact hazard is hard to determine. Event specific headlines may be used whenever there is a high degree of certainty that only one particular event will occur. The headline should also include the affected area and the time period of the warning.

Headline examples:

...A HEAVY SNOW WARNING HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR THE MOUNTAINS AND PASSES OF CENTRAL COLORADO FOR TONIGHT AND WEDNESDAY...

...A BLIZZARD WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR THE NEBRASKA PANHANDLE TODAY..

...A WINTER STORM WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR NEW JERSEY AND SOUTHEAST PENNSYLVANIA THIS AFTERNOON...

...AN ICE STORM WARNING HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR THE PIEDMONT OF NORTH
CAROLINA TODAY...

At regional discretion, a freeze warning may be issued for successive evenings (or events) during late spring (beginning of the growing season) or if the entire forecast area did not experience a "hard" freeze late in the growing season. A freeze may or may not be accompanied by the formation of frost. The freeze condition is generally significant only during the growing season except in normally warm climatic areas unaccustomed to freezing temperatures (i.e., in the south where winter freezes often burst water pipes, radiators, etc.). NOTE: The term "killing freeze" should only be used once during the growing season. Frost and freeze warnings should be issued in the AFOS category WSW. The MND for frost/freeze warnings should be "FROST WARNING" or "FREEZE WARNING" and include the (Z) form of the UGC (see WSOM Chapter C-63). Watches for frost or freezes are not issued.

Whenever warnings are in effect, SPSs should be issued at least with each forecast package. These statements should include the current warning information, updated weather details, and call to action statements. Use the (Z) form of the UGC and the MND "SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT."

Once the event begins, special weather statements should be issued frequently to keep users informed on the current and short-term aspects of the storm. NOTE: Severe weather statements should be used during blizzard situations.

The following examples illustrate a winter storm warning, a blizzard warning, an ice storm warning, and a sample SFP and ZFP which highlight the appropriate winter weather warning. Use specific quantitative values when addressing snowfall or ice accumulations. Keep meteorological explanations simple and avoid technical words and phrases. Geographical descriptions should be kept simple and limited to well known regions and larger cities or towns.

Examples:

ARBWSWARB
TTAA00 KARB 051000
MIZ001-002-012>015-022-052200-

WINTER STORM WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE ANN ARBOR MI
400 AM CST MON MAR 5 1991

...A WINTER STORM WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR SOUTH AND EAST MICHIGAN
TODAY...
THIS WARNING MEANS THAT A WINTER STORM IS IMMINENT. A MIXTURE OF SNOW AND SLEET IS FALLING OVER SOUTHWEST MICHIGAN THIS MORNING. THE SLEET AND SNOW WILL SPREAD EAST AND BECOME HEAVIER DURING THE MORNING. MOST OF SOUTHERN LOWER MICHIGAN WILL BE COVERED BY SNOW EXCEPT FOR THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE STATE WHERE A MIXTURE OF SNOW...SLEET...AND FREEZING RAIN WILL MAKE DRIVING TREACHEROUS. THE STORM WILL END EARLY THIS EVENING WITH TOTAL SNOWFALL OF 6 TO 10 INCHES. LOW TEMPERATURES AND STRONG WINDS WILL CONTINUE TO MAKE BOTH WALKING AND DRIVING HAZARDOUS.

INCREASING NORTH WINDS WILL CAUSE BLOWING AND DRIFTING SNOW AND LOW VISIBILITIES. IF YOU MUST TRAVEL IN SOUTH AND EAST MICHIGAN THIS AFTERNOON...BE READY FOR DIFFICULT DRIVING CONDITIONS. CARRY EXTRA SUPPLIES IN CASE YOUR CAR BECOMES DISABLED OR YOU ARE STRANDED.

BISWSWBIS
TTAA00 KBIS 092300
NDZ012>018-101100-

BLIZZARD WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BISMARCK ND
500 PM CST SUN DEC 9 1990

...A BLIZZARD WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR THE EASTERN THIRD OF NORTH DAKOTA TONIGHT...
DANGEROUS BLIZZARD CONDITIONS WILL CONTINUE OVER THE EASTERN THIRD OF NORTH DAKOTA TONIGHT. HEAVY SNOW...WINDS GUSTING TO MORE THAN 50 MILES AN HOUR...AND TEMPERATURES IN THE SINGLE DIGITS WILL PRODUCE A LIFE-THREATENING SITUATION. A SNOWFALL OF 8 TO 10 INCHES IS POSSIBLE WITH THE WIND WHIPPING THE SNOW INTO 3 TO 4 FOOT DRIFTS. VISIBILITIES WILL BE NEAR ZERO AND WIND CHILLS WILL APPROACH 60 DEGREES BELOW ZERO.

TOWNS WITHIN THE WARNING AREA INCLUDE FARGO...GRAND FORKS... JAMESTOWN... DEVILS LAKE AND VALLEY CITY.

ANY TRAVEL TONIGHT IS STRONGLY DISCOURAGED. IF YOU LEAVE THE SAFETY OF BEING INDOORS...YOU ARE PUTTING YOUR LIFE AT RISK.

RDUWSWRDU
TTAA00 KRDU 201000
NCZ005>008-013-202200-

ICE STORM WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RALEIGH NC
500 AM EST WED DEC 20 1990

...AN ICE STORM WARNING HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR THE PIEDMONT REGION OF CENTRAL NORTH CAROLINA TODAY...
THIS ICE STORM WARNING MEANS THAT DANGEROUS ACCUMULATIONS OF ICE WILL DEVELOP OVER THE PIEDMONT. FREEZING RAIN WILL COVER THE AREA THIS MORNING AND CONTINUE THROUGH THE DAY RESULTING IN AN INCH OF ICE.
THIS MUCH ICE CAN BREAK TREES AND POWER LINES AND LEAD TO DANGEROUS DRIVING AND WALKING CONDITIONS.

THE CITIES MOST AT RISK FROM THIS ICE STORM INCLUDE CHARLOTTE... GREENSBORO...WINSTON-SALEM...HIGH POINT...AND RALEIGH/DURHAM. THE
MOUNTAINS AND EASTERN THIRD OF THE STATE WILL ESCAPE THE ICE STORM. TEMPERATURES WILL BE WARM ENOUGH FOR THE PRECIPITATION TO FALL AS RAIN IN THE EAST AND COLD ENOUGH TO FALL AS LIGHT SNOW IN THE WESTERN MOUNTAINS.

MOIST AIR RIDING UP OVER A DOME OF COLD AIR IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS DANGEROUS WEATHER. THE FREEZING RAIN WILL DIMINISH AFTER DARK ENDING THE BUILDUP OF ICE.

TRAVEL WILL BECOME DANGEROUS ONCE THE FREEZING RAIN BEGINS. TRAVEL IS DISCOURAGED UNLESS IT IS AN EMERGENCY. AVOID DOWNED POWER LINES AND BE READY IN CASE OF A LOSS OF POWER.

Example of an SFP:

RDUSFPNC
TTAA00 KRDU 201000
NCZALL-202200-

STATE FORECAST FOR NORTH CAROLINA
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RALEIGH NC
500 AM EST WED DEC 20 1990

...AN ICE STORM WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR THE PIEDMONT OF NORTH CAROLINA TODAY...
.TODAY...RAIN THIS MORNING CHANGING TO FREEZING RAIN OVER THE PIEDMONT REGION PRODUCING DANGEROUS ACCUMULATIONS OF ICE. LIGHT SNOW WESTERN MOUNTAINS. HIGHS IN THE 20S MOUNTAINS...NEAR 30 IN THE PIEDMONT...AND MID 50S ALONG THE COAST.
.TONIGHT...RAIN AND FREEZING RAIN ENDING EXCEPT SCATTERED SHOWERS IN THE EAST. LOWS IN THE 30S WEST TO LOWER 50S EAST.
.THURSDAY...BREEZY AND WARMER WITH SHOWERS LIKELY. HIGHS IN THE 40S WEST TO NEAR 60 SOUTHEAST.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.FRIDAY AND SATURDAY...MILD WITH A CHANCE OF SHOWERS. LOWS IN THE LOWER 40S WEST TO THE LOWER 50S EAST. HIGHS IN THE LOWER 50S WEST TO LOWER 60S EAST.
.SUNDAY...COOLER WITH A CHANCE OF SHOWERS. LOWS IN THE 40S AND HIGHS IN THE 50S.

Example of part of a ZFP:

RDUZFPNC
TTAA00 KRDU 201000

NORTH CAROLINA ZONE FORECASTS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE RALEIGH NC
500 AM EST WED DEC 20 1990

NCZ005-201600-
NORTHEAST PIEDMONT-
500 AM EST WED DEC 20 1990

...AN ICE STORM WARNING IS IN EFFECT TODAY...
.TODAY...FREEZING RAIN WITH DANGEROUS ACCUMULATIONS OF ICE. HIGHS NEAR 30. LIGHT WINDS.
.TONIGHT...FREEZING RAIN ENDING. TEMPERATURES RISING INTO THE LOWER 30S. WINDS BECOMING SOUTHERLY AT 10 MPH. CHANCE OF PRECIPITATION 80 PERCENT.
.THURSDAY...BREEZY AND WARMER WITH SHOWERS LIKELY. HIGHS IN THE UPPER 40S. WIND SOUTHWEST 15 TO 25 MPH. CHANCE OF RAIN 60 PERCENT.

6.3.2 Winter Weather Advisories. Winter weather advisories should be issued for winter weather situations that cause significant inconveniences but do not meet warning criteria and, if caution is not exercised, could lead to life-threatening situations. Advisories are issued for significant events that are occurring, are imminent, or have a very high probability of occurrence. As with warnings, advisories are usually issued only for the first period of a forecast but may be issued for the second period if the forecaster is very confident the event will occur. Advisories should be reissued whenever there is a change in timing, areal extent, or expected condition.

Winter weather advisories should be issued in the AFOS category WSW and highlighted in all appropriate zone, local, and state forecast products. Use the (Z) form of the UGC as described in WSOM Chapter C-63.

The MND header should be "WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY," especially if more than one weather event (e.g., snow and freezing drizzle) is occurring or forecast. However, event specific MND headers, such as "BLOWING SNOW ADVISORY" or "FREEZING DRIZZLE ADVISORY," may be used if the forecaster is confident only one event will occur or is ongoing. There are exceptions to this, such as a "SNOW AND BLOWING SNOW ADVISORY," which may be issued as appropriate.

Winter weather advisories should include detailed information about the weather event which is inappropriate for the zone, local, or state forecast products. Advisories should include some of the following information. NOTE: The order of information may vary in order to produce the greatest impact.

o Affected area.

o Potential snow amounts, ice accumulations, wind chill, etc.

o Timing of the event (beginning, ending, time of heaviest precipitation or worst conditions, duration, statement about skill of timing, etc.).

o Reason for issuing the advisory.

o Precautions, call to action statements, potential impact.

Advisories should be headlined with the specific event producing the problem or with the generic "WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY" for situations having more than one event or when the exact event is hard to determine.

Advisory headline examples:

...A SNOW ADVISORY IS IN EFFECT FOR SOUTHERN INDIANA TONIGHT..

...A BLOWING AND DRIFTING SNOW ADVISORY IS IN EFFECT FOR EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA THIS AFTERNOON...

...A FREEZING DRIZZLE ADVISORY HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR THE TEXAS PANHANDLE TODAY...

...AN ADVISORY FOR DANGEROUS WIND CHILL HAS BEEN POSTED FOR NORTHERN MINNESOTA TODAY...

Whenever advisories are in effect, SPSs should be issued at least with each forest package. These statements should include the current advisory information, updated weather details, and call to action statements. Use the (Z) form of the UGC and the MND header "SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT."

Once the event begins, special weather statements should be issued frequently to keep users informed on the current and short-term aspects of the storm

Advisories should contain specific quantitative values as much as possible. Meteorological explanations should be kept general, avoiding technical words and phrases. Geographical descriptions should be kept simple and limited to well known regions and larger cities or towns.

The following are broad guidelines for issuing advisories and are not intended to be all inclusive.

Snow advisory--should be issued when 1-3 inches of snow are expected in areas where 4 inches triggers a warning. Similarly, 3-5 inches of snow, where 6 inches or more triggers a warning, should be handled by an advisory.

Freezing drizzle or freezing rain advisory--should be used with regional discretion when the precipitation is light and when the ice does not form on all exposed surfaces.

Examples:

PITWSWPIT
TTAA00 KPIT 211000
PAZALL-212200-

WIND CHILL ADVISORY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PITTSBURGH PA
500 AM EST MON JAN 21 1991

...AN ADVISORY FOR DANGEROUS WIND CHILL IS IN EFFECT FOR WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA TODAY...
EXTREMELY COLD TEMPERATURES AND STRONG WINDS WILL PRODUCE DANGEROUS WIND CHILLS ACROSS WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA TODAY. ARCTIC AIR STORMED INTO THE REGION LAST NIGHT AND TEMPERATURES WILL CONTINUE FALLING THROUGH THE DAY. TEMPERATURES IN THE TEENS THIS AFTERNOON WITH WINDS GUSTING TO AROUND 40 MILES AN HOUR WILL CAUSE WIND CHILLS NEAR 40 DEGREES BELOW ZERO.

THIS IS A POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS SITUATION FOR ANYONE OUTSIDE AND NOT PREPARED. IF YOU MUST BE OUTDOORS...BE CAREFUL TO COVER ALL EXPOSED SKIN.

INDWSWIND
TTAA00 KIND 012200
INZ011>015-021000-

SNOW ADVISORY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE INDIANAPOLIS IN
400 PM EST WED MAR 1 1990

...A SNOW ADVISORY IS IN EFFECT FOR SOUTHERN INDIANA TONIGHT AND THURSDAY MORNING...
SNOW WILL SPREAD OVER SOUTHERN INDIANA TONIGHT BEGINNING SHORTLY AFTER SUNSET. THE SNOW SHOULD BE SOUTH OF A LINE FROM NEAR TERRE HAUTE TO CINCINNATI. AROUND 3 INCHES OF NEW SNOW IS LIKELY BY SUNRISE.

THE SNOW ON ROADS WILL BE THE MOST SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM. MOTORISTS SHOULD DRIVE WITH CARE ALLOWING EXTRA TRAVEL TIME.

Example of an SFP:

INDSFPIN
TTAA00 KIND 012100
INZALL-021100-

STATE FORECAST FOR INDIANA
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE INDIANAPOLIS IN
400 PM EST WED MAR 1 1990

...A SNOW ADVISORY HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR SOUTHERN INDIANA FOR TONIGHT AND THURSDAY MORNING...
.TONIGHT...SNOW SPREADING OVER SOUTHERN INDIANA. UP TO 3 INCHES OF SNOW POSSIBLE BY SUNRISE. MOSTLY CLOUDY NORTH. LOWS IN THE UPPER 20S.
.THURSDAY...SNOW ENDING IN THE MORNING WITH PARTIAL CLEARING IN THE AFTERNOON. TOTAL SNOW ACCUMULATION AROUND 4 INCHES. HIGHS IN THE LOWER 30S.
.THURSDAY NIGHT...CLEAR AND COLD. LOWS IN THE UPPER TEENS.
.FRIDAY...SUNNY AND COLD. HIGHS IN THE UPPER 20S.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.SATURDAY AND SUNDAY...COLD. LOWS IN THE TEENS AND HIGHS IN THE 20S. .MONDAY...CHANCE OF SNOW. LOWS IN THE 20S AND HIGHS IN THE LOWER 30S.

Example of a ZFP:

INDZFPIN
TTAA00 KIND 012200

INDIANA ZONE FORECASTS
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE INDIANAPOLIS IN
400 PM EST WED MAR 1 1990

INZ011>015-020400-
INDIANA ZONES 11 12 13 14 15
400 PM EST WED MAR 1 1990

...A SNOW ADVISORY IS IN EFFECT TONIGHT...
.TONIGHT...SNOW ACCUMULATING AROUND 3 INCHES BY MORNING. LOWS IN THE UPPER 20S. SOUTHWEST WIND 10 TO 15 MPH.
.THURSDAY...SNOW ENDING IN THE MORNING. TOTAL ACCUMULATION AROUND 4 INCHES. HIGHS IN THE LOWER 30S. NORTH WIND INCREASING TO 15 TO 20 MPH DURING THE AFTERNOON. CHANCE OF SNOW 80 PERCENT.
.THURSDAY NIGHT...CLEAR AND COLD. LOWS IN THE UPPER TEENS. .FRIDAY...MOSTLY SUNNY AND NOT AS COLD. HIGHS IN THE 40S.

$$

6.3.3 Watches, Warnings, and Advisories in Effect at the Same Time. Complex weather systems may require that watches, warnings, and advisories be in effect for a variety of times and places within the WSFO/NWSFO area of responsibility. If this is the case, all watches, warnings, and advisories should be combined in the same WSW product.

Use a generic MND heading that acknowledges what is currently in effect, such as "WINTER STORM WATCH/WARNING," "WINTER STORM WARNING/ADVISORY," etc. Provide a summary of the type of events, areas, and/or times in the headline/ lead sentence. Give specifics of the event in the body of the message, usually in separate paragraphs, in decreasing priority: warnings first, advisories second, and watches last. Update the forecasts with the appropriate headline events. The same headline/lead sentence used for the WSW should work for the state forecast (SFP) as well.

Examples:

MSPWSWMSP
TTAA00 KMSP 271037
MNZ006-006>019-272200-

WINTER WEATHER WARNING/ADVISORY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MINNEAPOLIS/ST PAUL MN
430 AM CST MON NOV 27 1990

...A COMBINATION OF WINTER STORM WARNINGS AND ADVISORIES COVERS MUCH OF MINNESOTA TODAY...
A HEAVY SNOW STORM WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR WESTERN AND SOUTHERN MINNESOTA TODAY. AN ACCUMULATION OF 4 TO 8 INCHES OF SNOW IS LIKELY BY MID AFTERNOON. SNOW AND BLOWING SNOW ADVISORIES COVER CENTRAL MINNESOTA FOR 3 TO 5 INCHES OF SNOW. A WIND CHILL ADVISORY COVERS CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN MINNESOTA FOR WIND CHILLS AS LOW AS 35 DEGREES BELOW ZERO.

STRONG NORTH WINDS WILL SWEEP ACROSS THE STATE WITH GUSTS OVER 40 MILES AN HOUR CAUSING BLOWING SNOW...REDUCED VISIBILITIES AND DANGEROUS WIND CHILLS.

THE COMBINATION OF LOW TEMPERATURES...HIGH WINDS...AND REDUCED VISIBILITIES WILL MAKE OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES HAZARDOUS. IF YOU MUST BE OUT TODAY AND TONIGHT...DRESS WARMLY AND PROTECT EXPOSED SKIN FROM FROSTBITE.

DENWSWDEN
TTAA00 KDEN 241700
COZ002-004-005-007-008-010-242230-

WINTER STORM WARNING/ADVISORY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DENVER CO
1010 AM MST THU FEB 28 1991

...WINTER STORM WARNINGS AND ADVISORIES ARE IN EFFECT FOR MUCH OF
COLORADO FOR TODAY THROUGH FRIDAY...
WINTER STORM WARNINGS ARE IN EFFECT FOR THE NORTH...CENTRAL...AND
SOUTHWEST MOUNTAINS...AND THE FOUR CORNERS AREA OF COLORADO THROUGH
FRIDAY. SNOW BEGAN FALLING OVER THE SOUTHWEST MOUNTAINS SHORTLY AFTER SUNRISE. THE SNOW WILL BECOME HEAVY AS IT SPREADS ACROSS THE ROCKIES OF COLORADO AND PARTS OF THE WESTERN VALLEYS TODAY AND TONIGHT. UP TO 3 FEET OF SNOW WILL FALL ON THE SOUTHWEST MOUNTAINS AND 1 TO 2 FEET OF SNOW WILL COVER THE NORTH AND CENTRAL MOUNTAINS. SIX TO TWELVE INCHES OF SNOW WILL BLANKET THE FOUR CORNERS AREA.

HIGH WIND WARNINGS ARE IN EFFECT FOR THE MOUNTAIN PASSES AND THE COLORADO FRONT RANGE. STRONG WEST WINDS...GUSTING AS HIGH AS 70 MILES AN HOUR...WILL CAUSE BLOWING AND DRIFTING SNOW TONIGHT AND FRIDAY.

SNOW AND BLOWING SNOW ADVISORIES ARE IN EFFECT FOR TONIGHT AND FRIDAY IN THE SANGRE DE CRISTO MOUNTAINS IN SOUTH CENTRAL COLORADO. THREE TO SIX INCHES OF SNOW WILL FALL AND STRONG GUSTY WINDS WILL CAUSE BLOWING AND DRIFTING.

TRAVEL WILL BECOME HAZARDOUS AS THE STRONG WINDS AND HEAVY SNOW SPREAD THROUGH THE MOUNTAINS AND SOME OF THE LOWER VALLEYS OF THE WEST TONIGHT. TRAVELERS IN CENTRAL AND WEST COLORADO SHOULD KEEP UPDATED ON THE ROAD AND WEATHER CONDITIONS AND BE READY TO CHANGE TRAVEL PLANS.

SDFWSWSDF
TTAA00 KSDF 251200
KYZALL-261200-

WINTER STORM WATCH/WARNING
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LOUISVILLE KY
600 AM EST SUN FEB 25 1991

...A HEAVY SNOW WARNING COVERS WESTERN KENTUCKY TODAY AND A WINTER STORM WATCH HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR EASTERN KENTUCKY TONIGHT...
HAZARDOUS WINTER WEATHER WILL MOVE INTO WESTERN KENTUCKY TODAY AND WILL SPREAD INTO EASTERN KENTUCKY TONIGHT. A WINTER STORM WARNING FOR 6 INCHES OR MORE OF SNOW IS IN EFFECT FOR WEST AND CENTRAL KENTUCKY TODAY. A WINTER STORM WATCH HAS BEEN ISSUED FOR EASTERN KENTUCKY TONIGHT.

SNOW BEGAN FALLING OVER SOUTHWEST KENTUCKY ABOUT 4 AM AND WILL SPREAD EAST DURING THE DAY. SNOW WILL REACH LOUISVILLE AROUND NOON AND THE LEXINGTON-FRANKFORT AREA DURING THE AFTERNOON. SNOW AMOUNTS WILL EXCEED 6 INCHES IN THE WEST BY DARK. HEAVIER AMOUNTS WILL MOST LIKELY OCCUR NEAR THE TENNESSEE BORDER.

THE SNOW IS BEING CAUSED BY A LOW PRESSURE SYSTEM PASSING JUST SOUTH OF THE TENNESSEE/KENTUCKY BORDER. AS THE LOW MOVES TO THE EAST...SNOW...OR A MIXTURE OF RAIN AND SNOW...WILL MOVE INTO THE EASTERN MOUNTAINS TONIGHT. SNOW ACCUMULATIONS AROUND 6 TO 8 INCHES MAY BE EXPECTED BY MONDAY MORNING. THE SNOW WILL TAPER OFF IN THE WEST LATE THIS AFTERNOON AND MOVE OUT OF KENTUCKY BY MIDDAY MONDAY.

TRAVEL IS BECOMING HAZARDOUS AND MOTORIST SHOULD EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION UNTIL THE ROADS IMPROVE.

Example of an SFP:

SDFSFPKY
TTAA00 KSDF 251200
KYZALL-260000-

STATE FORECAST FOR KENTUCKY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LOUISVILLE KY
600 AM EST SUN FEB 25 1991

...HEAVY SNOW WARNINGS COVER THE WEST TODAY ALONG WITH A WINTER STORM WATCH FOR THE EAST MONDAY...
.TODAY...HEAVY SNOW AND BLOWING SNOW WEST. ACCUMULATIONS OF 6 INCHES ARE LIKELY. SNOW BEGINNING IN THE EAST BY LATE AFTERNOON. HIGHS IN THE LOWER 30S.
.TONIGHT...SNOW ENDING OVER THE WEST BUT CONTINUING EAST. ACCUMULATIONS OF 4 TO 6 INCHES EAST BY MORNING. LOWS IN THE UPPER 20S.
.MONDAY...SNOW ENDING EAST. TOTAL STORM ACCUMULATION AROUND 8 INCHES. CLOUDY WEST. HIGHS NEAR 30.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY...COLD. LOWS IN THE TEENS AND 20S WITH HIGHS IN THE 30S.
.THURSDAY...CHANCE OF RAIN OR SNOW. LOWS IN THE 20S AND HIGHS IN THE 30S.

DENSFPCO
TTAA00 KDEN 211700

STATE FORECAST FOR COLORADO...UPDATED
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DENVER CO
1000 AM MST THU FEB 21 1991

COZ001>010-212300-
COLORADO MOUNTAINS AND WEST
1000 AM MST THU FEB 21 1991

...WINTER STORM WATCHES...WARNINGS...AND SNOW ADVISORIES ARE IN EFFECT FOR THE MOUNTAINS...FOUR CORNERS...AND GUNNISON VALLEY AREAS TODAY THROUGH FRIDAY...
.TODAY...HEAVY SNOW BEGINNING THIS AFTERNOON IN THE MOUNTAINS AND FOUR CORNERS AREA SPREADING EAST. HEAVY ACCUMULATIONS OF 2 TO 3 FEET POSSIBLE OVER THE SOUTHWEST MOUNTAINS...WITH 8 INCHES TO A FOOT MORE COMMON OVER THE REMAINDER OF THE AREA. STRONG WINDS WILL CAUSE CONSIDERABLE BLOWING AND DRIFTING SNOW. HIGHS TODAY 35 TO 45 IN THE WEST AND MID 30S IN THE MOUNTAINS AND VALLEYS.
.TONIGHT...HEAVY SNOW IN THE MOUNTAINS AND GUNNISON VALLEY.
OTHERWISE...LIGHTER SNOW OR RAIN SHOWERS. INCREASING STRONG AND GUSTY WINDS. LOWS 25 TO 40 EXCEPT TEENS AND 20S IN THE MOUNTAINS.
.FRIDAY...SNOW AND RAIN ENDING. CONTINUED COLD AND WINDY. HIGHS IN THE 40S LOWER VALLEYS AND 20S IN THE MOUNTAINS.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.SATURDAY...LITTLE OR NO PRECIPITATION. LOWS ZERO TO 10 ABOVE IN THE MOUNTAINS WITH TEENS AND LOW 20S LOWER ELEVATIONS. HIGHS IN THE 30S IN THE MOUNTAINS AND IN THE 40S AND 50S LOWER ELEVATIONS.
.SUNDAY...CHANCE OF SNOW. LOWS ZERO TO 15 ABOVE MOUNTAINS AND HIGH VALLEYS WITH 20S LOWER ELEVATIONS. HIGHS UPPER 30S AND 40S.
.MONDAY...CHANCE OF SNOW MAINLY MOUNTAINS. LOWS ZERO TO 10 ABOVE
MOUNTAINS WITH TEENS AND 20S LOWER ELEVATION. HIGHS IN THE 30S.

$$

COZ011>019-212300-
COLORADO EAST
1000 AM MST THU FEB 21 1991

.TODAY...BECOMING CLOUDY AND WINDY BUT WARMER. HIGHS 60 TO 75.
.TONIGHT...VARIABLE CLOUDINESS WITH STRONG GUSTY EAST WINDS. MILD WITH LOWS MOSTLY IN THE 30S.
.FRIDAY...VARIABLE CLOUDINESS AND WINDY. COOLER WITH HIGHS IN THE MID 50S TO 60S.

.EXTENDED FORECAST...
.SATURDAY AND SUNDAY...NO PRECIPITATION. LOWS IN THE 30S. HIGHS IN THE 40S AND 50S.
.MONDAY...CONTINUED MILD. LOWS IN THE 40S AND HIGHS IN THE 50S.

6.3.4 Cancellation/Termination of Winter Storm Warnings and Advisories. WSFOs and NWSFOs should cancel/terminate winter storm warnings and advisories whenever the weather event on which the warning or advisory was based fails to materialize or tapers off so warning criteria are no longer met. This applies also to WSO/NWSOs that, at regional option, issue warnings or advisories for localized situations.

An SPS should be issued to cancel the warning or advisory and inform the user community. Use the MND "SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT" and the (Z) form of the UGC. NOTE: An SVS should be used to cancel a blizzard warning. The SPS/SVS should include the reason for ending the warning and, if applicable, provide some details about the history of the event (snow accumulations, height of snow drifts, amount of freezing rain, general road conditions, etc.).

The SPS/SVS may be worded to reflect the fact that even though weather conditions have improved, hazardous driving conditions may persist. For example, if the snow ends but roads are still snow covered, the NWS is not in the position to say precisely when the traveling hazard will end. This depends on highway maintenance procedures. Therefore, the SPS/SVS should include general descriptions about road conditions and reflect an improving trend rather than a definite end to the hazardous driving conditions. Calls requesting specific road conditions should be referred to the appropriate state agency. All current forecasts (zone, local, and state) should be updated as quickly as possible to delete the warning/advisory terminology from the forecast.

Example of a Warning Cancellation:

CHISPSCHI
TTAA00 KCHI 302015
ILZALL-310230-

SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CHICAGO IL
215 PM CST WED JAN 30 1991

...THE WINTER STORM WARNING FOR ILLINOIS IS NO LONGER IN EFFECT... THE STORM THAT BROUGHT HEAVY SNOW TO ILLINOIS HAS MOVED OUT OF THE AREA AND THE SNOW HAS ENDED. HOWEVER...STRONG WINDS WILL CONTINUE BLOWING AND DRIFTING SNOW AS COLD ARCTIC AIR SWEEPS INTO THE STATE TONIGHT.

TOTAL SNOWFALL AMOUNTS FROM THIS STORM RANGE FROM 6 INCHES AT MARION AND SPRINGFIELD TO 10 INCHES AT ROCKFORD AND CHICAGO. TWO FOOT DRIFTS ARE COMMON ACROSS NORTHERN ILLINOIS AND ARE HAMPERING ROAD CLEARING EFFORTS.

THE STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT INDICATES THAT ROAD CONDITIONS WILL IMPROVE SLOWLY DURING THE AFTERNOON AS CREWS CONTINUE THEIR PLOWING. MOTORISTS SHOULD DRIVE CAREFULLY AS MOST ROADS ARE STILL SNOW COVERED.

6.4 Statements and Short-term Forecasts. Before active weather develops, special weather statements (AFOS category SPS) should be issued at least with each forecast package outlining expected conditions, affected areas, timing, and appropriate response actions. Use the MND header "SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT" and the (Z) form of the UGC.

Once the event begins, special weather statements should be issued frequently to keep users informed on the current and short-term aspects of the storm in order to heighten awareness and ensure a proper response. NOTE: Severe weather statements (AFOS category SVS) should be used during blizzard situations. Use the MND header "SEVERE WEATHER STATEMENT" and the (Z) form of the UGC.

Example of Special Weather Statements:

DENSPSDEN
TTAA00 KDEN 281700
COZ004>010-281900-

SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DENVER CO
1000 AM MST THU FEB 28 1991

...A WINTER STORM WATCH REMAINS IN EFFECT FOR SOUTHEAST AND SOUTH CENTRAL COLORADO TONIGHT AND FRIDAY...
A WINTER STORM WAS BECOMING WELL ORGANIZED OVER WESTERN ARIZONA LATE THURSDAY MORNING. IT IS FORECAST TO MOVE ACROSS SOUTHERN COLORADO TONIGHT AND FRIDAY. HEAVY SNOW AND STRONG WINDS ARE LIKELY FOR THE FOUR CORNERS...GUNNISON AND SAN LUIS VALLEYS...ALONG WITH THE SANGRE DE CRISTO MOUNTAINS WHERE A WINTER STORM WATCH CONTINUES. SOME LARGER CITIES AND TOWNS IN THE WATCH AREA INCLUDE OURAY...MONTROSE...GUNNISON...SALIDA...DURANGO...AND ALAMOSA.

SNOWFALL AMOUNTS COULD RANGE FROM 8 INCHES IN THE LOWER VALLEYS TO NEARLY 2 FEET IN THE MOUNTAINS. BLIZZARD CONDITIONS ARE POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE STRONG WINDS.

IF YOU ARE HEADING INTO THE WATCH AREA TONIGHT OR FRIDAY...BE PREPARED FOR SNOW PACKED ROADS AND NEAR ZERO VISIBILITY. THE COLORADO STATE POLICE HAS ADVISED THAT THEY MAY REQUIRE CHAINS ON CERTAIN ROUTES...SO BE SURE AND CHECK BEFORE LEAVING. THIS COULD BE A VERY DANGEROUS STORM. STAY INFORMED IF YOU PLAN ANY TRAVEL ESPECIALLY ACROSS THE SOUTHERN HALF OF THE STATE.

CYSSPSCYS
TTAA00 KCYS 131718
WYZ012-015-016-017-131830-

SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CHEYENNE WY
1020 AM MST WED MAR 13 1991

...A WINTER STORM WARNING CONTINUES FOR SOUTHEAST WYOMING TODAY INTO EARLY TONIGHT...
AT 1015 AM BANDS OF SNOW WERE INTENSIFYING AND EXPANDING OVER SOUTHEAST WYOMING. ONE OF THESE BANDS JUST MOVED TO THE EAST OF CHEYENNE WHICH RECEIVED 3 INCHES OF NEW SNOW SINCE 7 AM. ANOTHER BAND WHICH DUMPED 4 TO 5 INCHES OF SNOW IN THE CITIES OF CASPER AND LARAMIE SINCE 7 AM IS EXPECTED TO REACH CHEYENNE BY NOON. CHEYENNE AND SURROUNDING AREAS SHOULD EXPECT UP TO AN ADDITIONAL 5 INCHES OF SNOW BY MID AFTERNOON. TOTAL STORM SNOWFALL COULD REACH 8 TO 12 INCHES ACROSS SOUTHEAST WYOMING THIS EVENING.

VISIBILITIES TO 1/8TH MILE IN THE HEAVIER SNOW BANDS AND NORTHERLY WINDS OF 15 TO 25 MILES AN HOUR WILL CONTINUE TO PRODUCE BLOWING AND DRIFTING SNOW ACROSS SOUTHEAST WYOMING THROUGH THIS AFTERNOON. TRAVEL WILL BE HAZARDOUS ESPECIALLY ALONG INTERSTATES 80 AND 25.

6.5 Snow Avalanche Bulletin. Snow avalanche bulletins are issued by the U.S. Forest Service for avalanche-prone areas in the western United States and Alaska. Selected NWS offices cooperate with the Forest Service by supplying supportive weather information and distribution of these avalanche warnings and advisories or have the actual warning responsibility. All avalanche information is transmitted in AFOS category SAB.

7. Information in Routine Forecasts. All winter weather watch/warning/ advisory information should be included in all appropriate state, zone, and local forecast products. If a winter weather watch, warning, or advisory is issued between scheduled forecast times, the forecasts should be updated as soon as possible. Do not postpone updates/revisions until the next regularly scheduled time for forecast package issuance.

8. Winter Weather Spotters. Winter weather spotters help to improve the accuracy of weather warnings, forecasts, and advisories by providing information about unfolding conditions of pre-specified weather events not available from routine or established data sources. These reports are particularly useful in data-sparse areas. NWS offices are encouraged to recruit and maintain winter weather spotter networks. People and organizations that make up severe storm and flash flood networks are usually good candidates to participate in a winter weather network. Other specialized groups who may be interested include highway department road crews, weigh stations, truck stops, radio stations, cooperative observers, railroads, etc.

9. Collection and Dissemination of Road Condition Reports. During winter storms, the condition of roads and highways is very important information for public safety and the conducting of business, especially for those traveling beyond their local area. Responsibility for the collection and dissemination of road condition information resides with organizations other than the NWS. The originator (state police, highway department, etc.) should communicate such information directly to the users. However, this information is helpful to the NWS in monitoring the ongoing weather situation. As resources allow, NWS offices may relay road condition information as a public safety service.

Appropriate office managers should work with state officials to have reports collected at frequent intervals and composed in a manner suitable for dissemination over the NOAA Weather Wire Service and NOAA Weather Radio. Time-consuming or labor-intensive efforts on the part of NWS employees to collect and enter this data should be avoided.

10. Reports to Regional Headquarters and Weather Service Headquarters. Immediately following a significant weather event (loss of life, serious injury, considerable property damage, all of which are directly attributable to the storm), all offices involved should telephone the information outlined below to the RHs. (See WSOM Chapter J-02, Special Reports on Weather Related and Other Major Events, for details.)

a. The types of watches and warnings issued and the area covered by the watches and warnings.

b. The time watches and warnings were put into effect and when they were withdrawn.

c. A brief summary of the weather that occurred, including weather highlights, such as maximum wind, maximum snowfall, etc.

d. A description and estimates of damage and the number of casualties if available.

e. General comments about the effectiveness of warnings, particularly timing.

RHs should notify the Chief, Warning and Forecast Branch, WSH, as soon as possible in accordance with WSOM Chapter J-02.

Field offices should provide written reports when requested by WSH of the RH containing the information in a. through e. above.

[8] From: Myron Berger at W-OM14 11/1/94 2:45PM (973 bytes: 11 ln)

To: Mac McLaughlin at W-SR-SRH, Russell Dorr at W-ER-ERH, Mike Looney at W-CR-CRH, Bob Richey at W-WR-HUB, Jim Kemper at W-AR-HUB, Edward Young at W-PR-HUB, Therese Pierce, Jeanne Hoadley, Marilee Bright at W-AAMB18, Betty Dodds at W-AAMB18, Richard McNulty at W-CR-HUB
cc: Richard Watling at W-ER-ERH, Rich Douglas at W-WR-HUB, Rich Schwerdt at W-CR-CRH, Steven Cooper at W-SR-SRH, Max White at W-SR-SRH
Subject: OML to C-42/C-44, Frosts/freezes

Message Contents

Please make the following "pen and ink" change to OML 5-94, dated October 26, 1994

The first sentence should read:

"Policies and procedures regarding frosts and freezes are transferred to Chapter C-44 from C-42."

Note that "C-44" and "C-42" were in the wrong order in this sentence on the OML.